KUKI ABAGABO BO MU RWANDA BATARAMBA?

KUKI ABAGABO BO MU RWANDA BATARAMBA?

Nyamara muri rusange rero iminsi y’abagabo ngo ntabwo ari myinshi, iyo hagereranyijwe na bagenzi babo b’abagore. Hakaba iryo tandukaniro ry’imyitwarire yabo n’ibyago byose ngo abagabo bishoramo.

Ivan Nyagatare

Abagabo ! Urababona mu isi y’ubu bagakina umupira ku bwinshi, bagatera ibitego bikinjira nyuma y’umuhati udasanzwe, imvune, ibyuya no gusunika ubushobozi bwose imibiri yabo yagira, ku kigero cya nyuma kibaho ! Ubundi bagakomerwa amashyi y’urufaya, bakishima.

Gucira mu ntoki, bakazinga amaboko y’amashati yabo, bakazamura amabendera yirabura ntibabitinya. Kurwana babihoramo ! Binjiri igisirikare ku bwinshi –cyaba icya leta zemewe cyangwa imitwe y’inyenshyamba ; bakarwana baba bafite impamvu ifatika cyangwa itumvikana. Bararwana uko byamera kose ! Nyuma y’ibyo bagasigarana amahitamo yo kwitegura intsinzi, icyubahiro n’ikuzo bikabahundagaraho cyangwa bagatsindwa ahubwo, abandi bakicwa cyangwa bakayabangira ingata.

Mu masiganwa y’ibyago bidahagarara, umubare munini cyane w’abagabo babamo mu isi ! Abagabo baragenda bagaca ingando mu nda y’isi ku bwinshi –n’ubu nta kabuza ntiwabura aho wabasanga bamaze nk’amezi 5 batarabona umurasire n’umwe w’urumuri rw’izuba ! Bagambiriye rimwe na rimwe kuzazamukana zahabu n’andi mabuye y’agaciro. Biti ihi se, binarengeho, babe abaherwe bidasanzwe, - ibyo nabyo ariko bigahira bacye muri bo !

Hari abagabo n’ubundi babyukira ku bwinshi ku bimashini binini bitigisa isi, nabo bibatigisa ubwabo : bararuha, noneho n’umwanya wo kuruhuka no kwiyuha akuya mu gahanga, abo bakenda amasegereti, ibigoma n’inkono z’itabi bagacana mu menyo, cyangwa bati agacupa hafi aho sha ! Inzoga zirimo n’izikaze nyabyo zikaba ari zo zibibagiza uburemere bw’imvune inshingano. Ibyo mu gihe gito!

Akazi gacogora gato, abagabo nanone ngo ku ijanisha rinini, bakerekeza mu maraha y’akanya bita ako kuruhuka : Ubwo niko mu rusaku n’amatara asindisha y’ijoro barara, ngo bacitse akazi ubwo nabwo barishimisha ! Amahabara n’indaya z’ijoro nabo bari kumwe hafi aho, ibihe byose.

Ntabwo ari uko nanone abagabo bose bameze, nk’uko atari nabo bakora gusa, n’abagore barakora. Gusa ngo abagabo ku bwinshi bahora mu mirimo ivunanye cyane, abenshi bakayitangira bakiri na bato, bagasaza iyo bagize ayo mahirwe yo kudakenyuka bakibirimo.

Nyamara muri rusange rero iminsi y’abagabo ngo ntabwo ari myinshi, iyo hagereranyijwe na bagenzi babo b’abagore. Hakaba iryo tandukaniro ry’imyitwarire yabo n’ibyago byose ngo abagabo bishoramo. Bimwe n’ubundi mu byo twagarutseho ngo biza imbere cyane n’ubundi mu kubabera impamvu yo kutaramba, bagakinduka imburagihe.

Photo by Johnny Cohen on Unsplash

Abagabo batari bacye nanone ngo ni abahitanwa no kwirushya bidasanzwe, bakirya byo kwirya ! Ntabwo bimara, ni urupfu rubatapfuna ku bwinshi, mu miruho n’ibyago byose babivanamo. Nanone ngo bagakora batizigamye, ngo baraharanira kuzasiga izina ku isi, ngo ko ‘babayeho koko nk’abagabo’.

Bafata ko kuba umugabo atari ukuba hari itandukaniro gusa n’umugore ku bijyanye n’umubiri mu buryo bugaragara. Ngo byo bigaragarira mu bikorwa basiga ku isi, amazina basiga bahanditse. Aba yanditse hehe ? Uretse ko ugiye muri ibyo muri rusange ngo usanga atari n’iby’abagabo gusa. Byareba bose, n’abagore!

Ubushakashatsi bwakozwe n’abahanga batandukanye, ndetse n’imibare y’ibigo mpuzamahanga by’ubuzima nk’Ishami rya ONU ryita ku Buzima –OMS / WHO, bugaragaza nyamara ko wa mugabo twavuze ubwema n’ubuhangange, icyubahiro, ibigango no gukunda umurimo, uwo ari nk’ikiremwa kiri mu byago bitagereranywa!

Byinshi bikaba ibyo yishoramo ubwe, yaba abizi cyangwa atabizi.

Reka tuve mu by’amagambo –wenda mutaza kubyita ayanjye, tujye kubyo abahanga noneho bavuga kuri iyi ngingo : Umushakashatsi David Williams wo muri Kaminuza ya Michigan muri Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika asanzwe n’ubundi akora ubushakashatsi butandukanye ku byo umuntu abamo ngo bigira ingaruka ku buzima bwe, ibyitwa ‘Facteurs Sociaux Qui Influent Sur La Sante’, yemeje ko abagabo bafite ibyago byinshi byo kurwara no gupfa bitunguranye ugereranyije n’abagore.

Ibi gusa n’ubundi ngo si bishya, ni ibisanzwe bizwi ! Ahubwo ngo igishya kiri muri ubu bushakashatsi ni izindi ngingo nshyashya zitari izijyanye n’umubiri w’umugore cyangwa w’umugabo mu buryo bw’imiterere y’umubiri n’ubuzima ‘biology. biologie’, iby’uturemangingo tugize umubiri wacu ‘génétique’ uko itandukanye.

Ingingo nshya ikaba iterwa n’imyemerere n’ibyo umuryango ‘société.

Society ihanzeho amaso umugabo. Ibyo nawe akaba yumva buri gihe agomba kubyuzuza ngo ayishimishe, bikamushyira mu kaga -akaga gakomeye ko ‘kuba yabura ubuzima imburagihe, igihe icyo ari cyo cyose.

Nk’urugero, David Williams avuga ko kubura akazi no kugira akazi kadashinga, kadafashe, ibingibi bihora bishyira umugabo mu kwibona nk’uwatsinzwe burundu urugamba rw’ubuzima ugereranyije n’ikigero ibyongibyo byahangayikishaho umugore’. Ni igererenya rusange, ntabwo bivuze gusa ko abagore ubwongubwo bo ntacyo biba bibabwiye.

Ibi rero ngo kuba ‘society’ –umuryango mugari uhora umutegerejeho ko ari we ugomba kubikora, nawe kandi ari ko abyumva, abyemera anabyitegerejeho koko nawe ngo bimutera kwiheba kudasanzwe, no kuba inzira y’indwara zose zishobora kuba zahingukiraho zikamunegekaza bikomeye, kubera umuhangayiko uhoraho.

Icya kabiri David Williams avuga ni uko kwiha intego zo kugera ku byo akora, kandi ku buryo bwisumbuyeho, ndetse n’umujagararo [stress] nabyo ngo bidaha umugabo na rimwe amahoro. Ntagoheke na rimwe ngo arashaka kujya imbere iteka. Bituma uwo ngo adasinzira, ataruhuka uko bikwiye.

Agahora atekereza bidashira, haba kuri we ubwe, ndetse n’umuryango mugari ushaka kumubona buri gihe mu buryo ubungubu cyangwa buriya. Iyo atabigezeho ubwabyo, nabyo ngo birangira bimubereye isoko y’indwara, indwara nazo zishobora kumuhitana cyangwa kumubaho akarande ugereranyije n’uko byakorwa ku mugore. Urugero rugahita ruba nk’indwara z’umuvuduko w’amaraso, kurengerwa n’intekerezo, ari nabyo biza mu byitwa "surmenage" byashegeshe abandi –aba baba bakoze, bakirushya kurenga umupaka ubwonko bwabo bwagashyizeho ingingo baba bahugiyeho.

Icya gatatu David Williams avuga ni uko nanone ngo abagabo ari imbata z’ibyakozwe mu binyabutabire bitandukanye biyahuza bashaka kwiha amahoro, bakabikora kenshi. Ibingibi bikaba nk’inzoga z’amoko yose n’ibiyobyabwenge bindi bitandukanye birimo ibitumagurwa nk’imogi, za cocaïnes n’ibindi bitera mu nshinge, ndetse n’ibindi bitandukanye, ku bwinshi ! Ibyongibyo ngo bakabikora ku kigero gisumba kure cyane uko byakorwa n’abagore muri rusange.

Ibingibi rero nabyo bigashegesha imibiri yabo mu buryo butoroshye, bagasigara ari ibisenzegeri ; byarimba ubwongubwo n’icyo bita ‘gufunga amakofi’, bagapfa kigakurikiraho !

Ibi nabyo ngo bikajya kuba bibi cyane, kuko umuryango mugari [société] ubungubu umugabo abamo nayo isa n’aho imwemerera cyangwa se imwumva ku byo kunywa inzoga nyinshi nk’izongizo n’ibyo biyobyabwenge ugereranyije n’umugore. Ibi byose wabisoma mu gitabo Un Esprit Positif : Guide Pratique Pour Affronter Les Réalités Quotidienne Cyanditswe na Julian Melgosa. Uyu akaba impuguke mu mitekerereze n’Umuyobozi w’Ishami ry’Uburezi n’Ubuzima bwo mu mutwe muri Kaminuza ya Walla Walla – Washington muri Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika.

Imibare yo mu mwaka w’2015 ya OMS/WHO  yo igaragaza ko impuzandengo y’icyizere cyo kubaho ku bagabo n’abagore buri gihe ihora irimo intera nibura y’imyaka 5. Ibyo kandi bikaba ukonguko, haba mu bihugu bikize cyangwa se ibikennye.

Hano, reka twibukiranye nanone gato : ‘icyizere cyo kubaho kibarwa nk’imyaka umuntu yabaho kuva asamwe kugeza apfuye, adahuye n’indwara zo mu bwana cyangwa se nanone impfu z’abana zituruka ku mpamvu zitandukanye, ariko cyane cyane izijyanye n’uburwayi’.

Abadakunda imibare mwihangane gato kuko uburyo tugiye kubisobanuramo nabwo buroroshye cyane ku buryo byorohera buri wese. Dukurikije uko iyo mibare yo mu mwaka w’2015 ibigaragaza, reka dufate ibihugu –nibura 3 ku isi, turebe n’ibiza imbere ku mugabane wa Afurika, ndetse turebe n’u Rwanda aho ruherereye:

•Ubuyapani muri iyo mibare nicyo gihugu kiza imbere : Muri rusange icyizere cyo kubaho ku baturage bacyo bose kikaba imyaka 83,7. Wagera kuri icyo cyizere cyo kubaho hakurikijwe ibitsina, abagore bafite icyizere cyo kubaho cy’imyaka 86,6 mu gihe abagabo baho bafite imyaka 82,4. Harimo itandukaniro ubwongubwo ry’imyaka 4,4.

• Hakurikiyeho igihugu cy’Ubusuwisi. Muri rusange icyizere cyo kubaho ahongaho ku baturage baho bose ni imyaka 83,4, abagore bakagira icyizere cyo kubaho cy’imyaka 85,3 mu gihe abagabo bafite imyaka 80.3. Hakabamo itandukaniro ubwo ry’imyaka 5.

• Hakurikiyeho igihugu cya Singapore. Muri Singapore muri rusange, icyizere cyo kubaho ku baturage bose ni imyaka 83,1. Abagore bakagira icyizere cyo kubaho cy’imyaka 86,1, mu gihe abagabo bafite imyaka 80. Harimo itandukaniro ry’imyaka 6.1 yose !

Izi ngero 3 ubwazo ziratanga isura y’imyaka 5 y’ikinyuranyo isa n’idahinduka hagati y’icyizere cyo kubaho ku bagabo no ku bagore.

•Ku mugabane wa Afurika, igihugu cya Tunisia nicyo kiza imbere, naho ku isi hose kikaba ku mwanya wa 64. Icyizere cyo kubaho ku baturage baho ni imyaka 75,3 muri rusange, abagore baho bakagira icyizere cyo kubaho cy’imyaka 77,8, mu gihe abagabo bafite imyaka 73. Harimo ikinyuranyo cy’imyaka 4,8.

•Tunisia ikurikiwe n’Ibirwa bya Maurice. Ibi biri ku mwanya wa 77 ku rwego rw’isi. Icyizere cyo kubaho ku baturage baho ni imyaka 74,6 muri rusange, abagore bakagira icyizere cyo kubaho cy’imyaka 77,8 ; mu gihe abagabo bafite imyaka 71,4. Hakabamo ikinyuranyo ubwo cy’imyaka 6,4.

•Hakurikiraho Maroc ku mwanya wa 82 ku rutonde rw’isi. Muri rusange, icyizere cyo kubaho ku baturage ba Maroc ni imyaka 74,3. Abagore bakagira icyizere cyo kubaho cy’imyaka 75,4 mu gihe abagabo baho bafite icyizere cyo kubaho imyaka 73,3. Ikinyuranyo kikaba imyaka 4,8.

•U Rwanda mu mibare yo muri icyo gihe (2015) rwari ku mwanya w’133. Hano icyizere cyo kubaho ku baturage bose ni imyaka 66,1. Icyizere cyo kubaho hakurikijwe ibitsina, abagore bafite icyizere cyo kubaho cy’imyaka 71,1 mu gihe abagabo bari ku myaka 60,9. Ubwo icyo gihe itandukaniro ryari imyaka 10,2 !

Iri ni itandukaniro rikomeye ! Gusa bu hari ukuntu mu Rwanda byazamutse : byageze mu myaka ya 2020 icyizere cyo kubaho ku Banyarwandakazi ari imyaka 69,7 mu gihe ubwo abagabo b’Abanyarwanda cyo cyageze noneho ku myaka 65,8.

U Rwanda ni kimwe mu bihugu ku isi biza imbere cyane mu kinyuranyo kinini hagati y’abagabo n’abagore iyo bigeze kuri iyi myaka biba biteganywa ko abantu bashobora kubaho cyangwa se kuramba. Ese byaba bisobanura ko abagabo b’Abanyarwanda bishora mu byago byinshi bibaviramo urupfu imburagihe kurusha ahandi ? Iyi ni indi ngingo nanone y’ubushakashatsi bwihariye.

Nko muri iyi mibare y’ubushakashatsi bwo mu mwaka w’2015 muri rusange ku isi ukurikije icyizere cy’uburambe bwo kubaho hakurikijwe ibitsina gusa, u Rwanda rwari ku mwanya w’120 ku isi ku kugira abagore bafite icyizere cyo kubaho kiri hejuru. Nyamara rwari ku mwanya w’150 ku cyizere cyo kubaho ku bagabo. Aha birumvikana muri rusange ko ikinyuranyo ari kinini.

Photo by Nathz Guardia on Unsplash

Muri rusange rero, icyitwa ‘Life Expectancy’, igipimo kigenekereza icyizere cyo kubaho ku isi yose.

Imibare nk’iyi kandi inagaragaza ko itandukaniro kuri iyi ngingo rinaterwa n’ibindi bintu byinshi. Dr Perminder Sachdev  avuga ko ibingibi atari itandukaniro ku muryango mugari ‘society’ uyu n’uyu gusa. Ngo ni ku isi hose.

Gusa nawe ntabwo abura kunga mu rya Dr David Williams ngo ‘buriya abagabo iyo bigeze ku ngingo yo kwiyahuza ibitabi n’amayoga, ndetse n’ibindi biyobyabwenge, bikabashegesha ku kigero kibambura ubuzima ku bwinshi, ibi ngo bihinduka ingingo rusange’.

Yewe ngo ‘n’iyo wajya kwa muganga - kuko nabwo ari mbarwa bajyayo bakagirwa inama ; ariko ngo ntabwo bazikurikiza ku bwinshi !’ Ubundi se nturumva urwenya ngo ‘iyo Umunyarwanda agiye kwa muganga kwivuza, bakamwandikira imiti ahita yihutira kubaza niba ku kayoga noneho ataza kuza gusomaho !’ ati ‘Ese mbe nsubitse, iyi miti ntabwo ikorana n’inzoga ? cyangwa nkomeze ninywere ?’

Dr Perminder Sachdev avuga kandi n’ibindi bikorwa bitandukanye we yita ko ari ‘nk’ubwiyahuzi ku mubare munini cyane w’abagabo’ aho nk’ubwo ngo usanga batwara imodoka ku bwinshi, ku muvuduko uri hejuru cyane nk’abiyahura ku bushake. Ibyo bakabikora nta kwigengesera na mba, kandi ku kigero ijanisha rinini cyane ry’abagore badashobora kugeraho na mba !

Kuri iyi ngingo nta kabuza, uwareba police mu ishami ryo mu muhanda we yabona iyi mibare ku gutwara ibinyabiziga ku muvuduko uri hejuru cyane, impanuka ndetse n’abatwara banyoye –kunywa byo kurenga ikigero cyatuma batwara imodoka, aha imibare nk’iyi uyibonye nko ku mwaka wakumirwa ugiye kubara ngo ibyo byakozwe n’abagore bangahe, abagabo bangahe ! Wasanga ari itandukaniro rikomeye cyane.

« Ku rundi ruhande hari izindi ngingo abaganga ndetse n’inzobere zitandukanye nabo bagaragaza nk’izishyira ubuzima bw’abagabo mu kaga kabakururira urupfu ku bwinshi. Ubwo mu buryo karemano, umusemburo wa Testostérone abagabo bagira nawo ngo waba ubagabaniriza ubudahangarwa bwo kuramba.

Ngo iyi Testostérone yaba igabanya ubwirinzi bw’umubiri ndetse ikongerera abagabo kuba barwara indwara z’umutima n’izizishamikiyeho [Risques de maladies cardio-vasculaires]. Ahubwo ku rundi ruhande ngo ikaba n’imisemburo nanone igira uruhare mu gusa n’ibashora muri izo nzira ; cyangwa ikabamara icyafatwa nk’ubwoba bwo gutinya ndetse no kwigengesera, bagahubuka ». Ibi nabyo ni ibyatangajwe na Dr Kyung Jin Minh  wigisha ibijyanye n’Ibinyabuzima muri Kaminuza ya Inha muri Koreya y’Amajyepfo.

Kuri we, ngo igihe bakurikiranaga ubuzima bw’abagabo 81 bakonnwe [castrate] bakiri abana, noneho umubiri wabo ntujye utanga Testostérone nyinshi nk’iyabatarakonnwe, ni ubushakashatsi bwasanze bene abongabo bakonnwe ari abana barabagaho imyaka iri hagati ya 14 na 19 y’inyongera ugeranyije n’abatarakonnwe.

Ubundi bushakashatsi nanone bukagaragaza ko Testostérone ibuza gusohoka k’utunyangingo tumwe dufasha umubiri kwirinda indwara. Byumvikane ko kuri we n’ubushakashatsi bwe n’ubwo iyi Testostérone ifitiye akamaro umubiri w’umugabo, ariko nanone ngo [igomba] kuba ari intandaro yo gukinduka, gupfa imburagihe kw’abagabo benshi dukurikije ubushakashatsi bwa Dr Kyung Jin Minh. Mu gihe umugabo agira Testosterone, umugore we yigirira imisemburo yitwa Oestrogenes. Iyi ku bagore ibahindukira ikinyuranyo ahubwo, kuko ubwo kuba bayifitemo ibatera kuramba irinda ko ADN – ingirangingo z’abo bagore zagira ikizangiza icyo ari cyo cyose, Ikabarinda.

Gusa hari n’ibindi bizamo icyafatwa nk’urwenya – urwenya ariko rushobora kuba rwibitsemo ukuri runaka kundi : ngo hari undi muganga wavumbuye ko ibanga ryo kuramba kw’abagore ryaba riba mu kuvuga cyane  ! Kuvuga cyane byo kubara no kumva inkuru nyinshi.

Ngo kuba abagore bakunda kuvuga kenshi, bagatera ibiparu, bakaririmba, bakabarirana inkuru, abandi bakazumva kandi babyitayeho cyane, bagaseka ; kandi kenshi, mu gihe cyose ! Ngo byaba bituma ibihaha byabo bikora neza. Mu gihe abagabo benshi bo ngo biha kuvuga amagambo macye cyane kandi abaze. Bamwe bakamera nk’abahora bahekenya amenyo ngo ni ‘ukuba serieux no gutekereza ibifite akamaro’, abandi ngo bakirundamo umubabaro n’ishavu byabo, bibanira nabyo ubwabo bonyine mu mitima yabo igashenguka, ibihaha byabo ntibikore uko bikwiye, bikagwingira ; bakarwara imyijima, abandi ngo ishavu n’agahinda by’ubwigunge [reba inyandiko ku ndwara z’agahinda gakabije, depression, anxiety,…] bikabanangura ahubwo !

Kuvuga cyane, bya kenshi –ariko nanone atari ubujajwa no kuzimura ahari uko bifatwa ngo bishobora kuba ari ibanga ryo kuramba. Abandi nabo mu gutebya bati ‘niba ari uko bimeze, umugabo wese uzabuza umugore we kwivugira uko ashaka agomba gushyikirizwa inzego z’ubutabera, kuko azafatwa nk’ushaka kumubuza kuramba !’

Ingingo yo kuramba kw’abagore no kutaramba kw’abagabo ni ndende cyane ndetse itangwaho ibitekerezo byinshi hagendewe no ku mico n’imibereho itandukanye, kandi ubushakashatsi buyivugaho ibintu bitandukanye, byinshi. Gusa igihurizwaho ni uko uburambe bw’abagabo buri hasi. Nureba ku makuru hirya no hino cyangwa se hafi yawe, iruhande rwawe ahongaho, uzasanga ibisambo, ababarizwa mu bikorwa by’iterabwoba, abajura, abagize imitwe yitwaza intwaro myinshi, ku bwinshi ari abagabo.

Iyi ni ingingo ndende nibishoboka tuzanayigarukaho. Hagati aho, tubifurije kuramba bya nyabyo, abagore n’abagabo. Ni ah’ubutaha!