CRYPTOCURRENCY : AMAFARANGA Y'IKORANABUHANGA.

CRYPTOCURRENCY : AMAFARANGA Y'IKORANABUHANGA.

Ivan Nyagatare

‘Cryptocurrency’, ‘Crypto’ ‘Digital currency’, ‘Digital cash’, ‘Virtual Currency’, ‘Electronic Currency’ ni ifaranga rikoreshwa mu guhererekanya ubutunzi, kugura / kugurisha ibintu na serivisi bakoresheje ikoranabuhanga rya murandasi.
Iyi gahunda ikoresha Crypto yifashisha igitabo - ledger/registre kiri kuri murandasi cyanditswe mu buryo bwa codes zihambaye ku buryo bitashobokera bamwe biba bakoresheje kwinjirira ikoranabuhanga rya murandasi (hackers) kucyinjirira. Urubuga CoinMarketCap.com ruvuga ko ‘Iri koranabuhanga rikoresha amafaranga atandukanye, ari mu buryo burenga 10.000, muri yo twavuga : Bitcoin, Ethereum, Tether, Binance Coin, Cardano, XRP,
Dogecoin, Polkadot, USD Coin, Internet Computer, Libra,…’

Muri ino ngingo tugiye kuganira ku rimaze kwamamara cyane rya ‘bitcoin’, rishobora no kwandikwa mu mpine BTC. Nanone, rigaragazwa n’amashusho aboneka kuri murandasi : ishusho y’igiceri cya zahabu/bronze kiriho inyuguti ya B yanditswe iberamye gato, ifite uturongo 2 hasi no hejuru.

Iri koranabuhanga niryo riri ku ruhembe rw’umuheto mu iterambere rikataje mu mfuruka zose z’isi rishingiye ku kwishyurana amafaranga hatabayeho kuyahererekanya mu ntoki. Muri ubu buryo bwo kwishyurana, abantu bamaze gutambuka intambwe yo gukoresha telefoni ngendanwa, bagera ku kwishyurana bifashishije internet, bidasabye banki nk’umuhuza hagati ya bombi.

Amateka y’inkomoko ya bitcoin (BTC).

Mu mwaka wa 1999, umugabo witwa Wei Dai yagize igitekerezo cyo gutangiza ifaranga ryitwa b-money. Mu mwaka wa 2005, uwitwa Nick Szabo akomeza cya gitekerezo cya Wei kuko nawe yagerageje gutera intambwe uwo mushinga arema ifaranga ryitwa bitgold, ariko uyu mushinga ntiwageze kure, kugeza ubwo mu mwaka wa 2007, Umuhanga Satoshi Nakamoto yashimye guhuza igitekerezo cya Wei Dai n’icya Nick Szabo abishyira hamwe maze abiteza imbere. Mu mwaka wa 2009 nibwo Nakamoto yatangiye porogaramu ya mbere ya bitcoin.

Bitcoin rikaba ari ijambo rikomatanyije amagambo 2 y’icyongereza : Bit (urugero-shingiro mu gupima amakuru ahererekanywa mu buryo bw’ikoranabuhanga /Unité d’information binaire / Binary information unity) na coin (pièce de monnaie, igiceri). Aya mafaranga BTC afite umwihariko w’uko (i) nta gihugu ashingiyeho, (ii) ntashobora kugaragara cyangwa ngo (iii) afatwe mu ntoki !

Uyu Satoshi Nakamoto akimara gutegura intambwe za mbere kuri uyu mushinga w’ifaranga rya BTC, yakomeje gukorana n’abandi bahanga kugeza mu mwaka wa 2010, maze ahita aha inshingano Gavin Andersen. Mbere yo gutanga uburenganzira, Nakamoto yakoze impinduka ku bijyanye na code gusa. Mu myaka irenga 10 ishize ritangiye gukoreshwa, ryagiye ritera imbere umunsi ku munsi, kugeza ubwo ryigaruriye isi.

Mu nyandiko yasohowe na Satoshi Nakamoto mu mwaka wa 2008 yiswe ‘Bitcoin : A peer to Peer Electronic Cash System’, yagaragazaga uburyo abantu 2 bashobora kohererezanya amafaranga nta kiguzi na gito baciwe nk’ubwishyu. Kuva icyo gihe abarirwa agaciro k’amamiliyari y’amadolari ya Amerika amaze gukoreshwa binyuze mu guhererekanya amafaranga hagati y’amakompanyi menshi ndetse n’abantu bakomeye ku isi.

Bitcoin (BTC) ikora ite ?

Amakuru aboneka ku rubuga investopedia.com avuga ko bitcoin ikora mu buryo bumwe n’ubundi bwoko bw’amafaranga akoreshwa mu isi mu bihungu bitandukanye : buri muntu wifuza gutunga cyangwa guhererekanya Bitcoins agira ububiko bwe ; (i) ushobora kubika kuri internet aho ufungura konti ukajya uyinjiramo aho waba uri hose, wakwifashisha porogaramu ushyira muri mudasobwa cyangwa telefoni yawe, (ii) kugura ububiko bwabigenewe bwa bitcoins (Bitcoins Hardware Wallets) no (iii) gukoresha impapuro mvunjwafaranga.

Bitcoins nayo ni amafaranga ashobora kuzamuka mu gaciro cyangwa se akagatakaza ; kandi ashobora kuvunjwa nk’andi yose. Mu ntangiriro, leta nyinshi ntizizeraga ubu buryo bwa cyptocurrency –cyane cyane kubera ko bwari bushya atari na benshi babusobanukiwe. Ariko ubu bumaze kwamamara ku buryo hari n’amashuri yemera kwishyurwa hakoreshejwe cryptocurrency. Nk’uko twabibonye haruguru, kohereza no kwakira Bitcoin bisaba kugira ‘Bitcoin Wallet’, iyi ni konti yawe muri banki –kuko hari amabanki akorera kuri internet abika aya mafaranga gusa. Kuyahererekanya bikorwa na ba nyirayo, bifashishije ‘Wallet ID’ hamwe n’ijambo / umubare – rufunguzo w’ibanga uhabwa n’iyo banki.

Mbese ubu buryo bw’ihererekanya ry’ubutunzi burizewe ?

Amakuru y’ihererekanywa rya bitcoins abikwa na ‘block chain’ iba ifunguye kuri buri wese, bifasha umukiriya binyuze kuri mudasobwa ye kumenya koko niba ibyakozwe byizewe, kuko aba abona amakuru ahagije y’uburyo uwo bahererekanya amafaranga akora : ibi bituma hirindwa ubujura n’ubundi bwambuzi bwose.

Buri hererekanya ry’amafaranga rikozwe bisaba uwohereza amafaranga kubanza kubyemeza ashyiramo umubare w’ibanga mbere y’uko amafaranga ava kuri konti yen go ajye ku yindi, bityo umuntu aba afite uburenganzira / ubugenzuzi kuri bitcoins ze zose. Bitcoin ikora nka ‘application’ ya telefoni cyangwa porogaramu ya mudasobwa ifasha abantu babiri kohereza no kwakira bitcoins.

Kuba maso ni ingenzi cyane.

Nk’uko n’irindi koranabuhanga ryose rikenera kuba maso ku barikoresha hagamijwe kwima icyuho abahanga mu kwinjirira amabanga y’ikoranabuhanga no kuriganya bahora barekereje ; ku bijyanye n’umutekano, bisaba kwinjira muri iyi gahunda uyisobanukiwe neza, kuko n’ubwo ubu bucuruzi bukorwa hifashishijwe sites (websites) zitandukanye zifasha abantu kugira ngo bashobore kunguka ; ntihabuze abahanga mu kwinjirira ikoranabuhanga (hackers) bahimba izindi sites z’uburiganya zikiyitirira gahunda nk’iyi ya cryptocurrency : ugasanga ziremerera abantu inyungu z’umurengera (zitwa HYIP), cyangwa se izo usanga bamwe bungukira ku bandi (ingero : Matrix 3*4, Chaine pyramidal,…) aho usanga hunguka benshi babanza ku rutonde, ndetse bakanatunga imiryango, igihe kigatambuka bikora nta ngorane, ariko ejo ejobundi wajya gufungura urubuga ugasanga ntirukibaho ! mu kwirinda ingorane nk’izi, bisaba kubanza gushaka amahugurwa yimbitse (courses) ndetse no kugisha inama inzobere mu ishoramari rishingiye ku ikoranabuhanga.

Ni inde ugenzura bitcoin ?

Mu buryo bujya gusa no kuba ntawe ugenzura ikoranabuhanga rya internet ryo kohererezanya ubutumwa bwa e-mail, bitcoin nayo nta muntu cyangwa ikigo cyihariye kiyigenzura. Gusa ihererekanywa ryayo rigenzurwa n’abitwa ‘Bitcoin Miners’ babifitiye uburenganzira, bakemeza niba ryemewe cyangwa ritemewe.

Biterwa n’iki kugira ngo bitcoin igire agaciro cyane ?

Bitcoin imwe ibarirwa mu madolari ahindagurika (kuri ubu inite 1 ya BTC ivunja 10,950USD). Impamvu yo kuba iri faranga rifite agaciro kari hejuru cyane ugereranyije n’amafaranga asanzwe duhererekanya mu biganza no ku makonti ni uko bitcoin ifite miliyoni 21 zikoreshwa muri iryo hererekanya kandi zidahinduka ngo yiyongere cyangwa se agabanuke. Ibi rero biyaha kuzamura agaciro buri munsi kubera ko ari make kandi ashakishwa ku bwinshi.

Bitcoins zunguka zite ?

Bitcoins uburyo zungukamo ni bwinshi, nk’uko n’amafaranga asanzwe iyo uyafite, ushobora kuyaguramo icyo ushatse cyose. Itandukaniro ni uko bitcoin ikorera kuri internet ; gusa ukaba ushobora kuyavunjisha mu yandi mafaranga y’agaciro (dollars, euros,…). Akenshi hari abitiranya bitcoins n’ibyo barimo bayakoreshamo : bitcoin ni amafaranga, naho icyo wayashoyemo (igikorwa, igicuruzwa,…) kikaba kirimo kukungukira. Urundi rugero ni mu gihe ushaka nko gutumiza ibicuruzwa, imodoka, imashini runaka, ibikoresho runaka,… mu Buyapani, mu Bushinwa, mu Burayi,…washaka amakuru y’uruganda ushaka kuguraho ugasanga bemera kwishyurwa muri bitcoins : ushobora kwishyura muri ubwo buryo, kandi mu gihe cy’iminota mike rwose !

Bitcoins nazo zigira aba agents bazo baba bashinzwe kuzigura, ndetse hariho na websites nyinshi zigenewe ubucuruzi bwo kugura no kugurisha bitcoin. Urugero rubangutse ni localbitcoins.com bivugwa ko irinzwe neza kandi ifite aba agents benshi ku isi. Buri muntu wifuza gutunga cyangwa guhererekanya iri faranga agira ububiko bwe. Nta kigo /urwego bizwi rutanga bitcoins, ahubwo ni abantu ubwabo bayahererekanya binyuze ku rubuga bahuriyeho mu ikoranabuhanga. Kohererezanya bitcoins nta kiguzi bisaba.

Bitcoin ni amafaranga yizewe, kandi nta mpungenge z’uko ukoresha uburyo bwo guhererekanya amakuru yakwibwa imyirondoro ye. Gusa birumvikana, imyirondoro ye n’imibare/amagambo – mfunguzo agomba kubirindira umutekano (yirinda kubishyira ku karubanda, aho bidafite aho bihuriye na gahunda ya cryptocurrency), kandi akabika bitcoins ze ahantu hizewe (muri bwa buryo twabonye haruguru).


Ubushakashatsi bwifashishijwe :
- Digital currency, Virtual currency,…amafaranga (i) adafite igihugu ashingiyeho, (ii) atagaragara cyangwa ngo afatwe mu ntoki (material consistence).
- https://www.investor.gov
- James F. Royal, PhD: What is cryptocurrency? Here’s what you should know. www.nedwallet.com