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GUSOMERA ABANA : UMUCO W'INGIRAKAMARO CYANE.

GUSOMERA ABANA : UMUCO W'INGIRAKAMARO CYANE.

Gusomera umwana, ku kigero icyo ari cyo cyose afite bizamugirira akamaro cyane : bikangura gukura k’ubwonko bwe, binoza umushyikirano we n’umubyeyi.

Ivan Nyagatare
Ivan Nyagatare

Abahanga mu by’ubuzima bwo mu mutwe n’imitekerereze bagereranya abana n’igitambaro – éponges (sponges) gishobora kunywa ubwoko bwose bw’ibisukika gihuye nabyo ! Urubuga healthline.com ruhamya ko ibi ari ukuri, n’ikimenyimenyi, ‘no mu gihe cyo kubaganiriza imigani/inkuru mpimbano, ubwonko bwabo buba buri mu kazi gakomeye, bamira imvugo yose bumva, ndetse n’amasomo ava muri ibyo bitekerezo !’

Gusomera umwana, ku kigero icyo ari cyo cyose afite bizamugirira akamaro cyane : bikangura gukura k’ubwonko bwe, binoza umushyikirano we n’umubyeyi, n’ibindi turi bugarukeho. Icyo bisaba ni ibitabo bicye, ubushake ndetse n’igihe gito cyane.

Nabyifatamo nte ?

Intambwe ya mbere ni ukwishyiramo ishusho rusange y’igikorwa. Ugahitamo igitabo. Ukicara mu ntebe yawe ukunda, umwana ukamwicaza ku bibero. Ugahera ku mpapuro zibanza –ubusanzwe mu bitabo byagenewe abana zirangwa n’amabara akeye, ukamusomera inkuru…usibye gutwarwa n’inkuru, umwana aba ari kwiga.

Reka tuganire kuri bimwe mu byiza byo gusomera umwana :

Nabyifatamo nte?

Intambwe ya mbere ni ukwishyiramo ishusho rusange y’igikorwa. Ugahitamo igitabo. Ukicara mu ntebe yawe ukunda, umwana ukamwicaza ku bibero. Ugahera ku mpapuro zibanza –ubusanzwe mu bitabo byagenewe abana zirangwa n’amabara akeye, ukamusomera inkuru…usibye gutwarwa n’inkuru, umwana aba ari kwiga.

Reka tuganire kuri bimwe mu byiza byo gusomera umwana :

1. Umubano w’umwana n’umubyeyi urushaho gushora imizi.
Gusomera umwana bizababera mwembi umwanya mwiza wo gushyikirana. Ni igihe cyiza cyo kuba hamwe, muruhuka indi miruho y’umunsi. Hari ubushakashatsi bwashyizwa ahagaragara mu mwaka wa 2008 bwemeje ko ‘gusomera umwana bitiza umurindi umushyikirano uri hagati y’umwana n’umubyeyi : Umwana yumva atekanye mu gihe asomerwa.’ Ikirenze ababyeyi baha agaciro igitabo no gusoma, babera abana babo icyitegererezo mu nzira yo gushaka ubumenyi.

2. Gukomeza ubushobozi bw’umwana bwo gutega amatwi.
Kumva inkuru isomwe mu ijwi ry’umubyeyi we bisaba umwana uruhare rwe-gutega amatwi. Gusobanukirwa ibivugwa bishingiye ku gutega amatwi yitonze no gusesengura ibyo yumva : bwa bushobozi bwo gutega amatwi, akikumiramo ibyamurangaza byose. Abahanga mu by’imyigishirize batangaje ku rubuga scholastic.org ko ‘gutega amatwi no gusesengura ni impano umwana akwiriye gutozwa na mbere y’uko atangira kwisomera ubwe’. Bakomeza batanga inama ko ‘ibitabo bikozwe mu buryo bw’amajwi –audiobooks, podcasts, nabyo ari inkunga ikomeye ku gutoza abana umuco wo gusoma. Kandi usibye n’ibyo, bifasha umwana no kuruhuka mu mutwe nk’uko umuziki ubikora’.

3. Gutyaza ubushobozi bw’umwana mu gusobanukirwa –cognitive, ndetse n’ururimi – language.
Ubushakashatsi bwagaragaje ko n’abana b’impinja baryoherwa no gusomerwa inkuru n’ababyeyi babo. Inyigo yakozwe mu mwaka wa 2013 yagaragaje ko impinja zasomewe ndetse zikanaganirizwa zagaragaje ubushobozi bwisumbuye mu ndimi ndetse no gusobanukirwa, bashobora gufindura amahurizo y’abana bahawe. Abahanga bavuga ko umushyikirano w’abana n’ababyeyi ushingiye ku gusoma, kuganira ufite ubushobozi bwo kuzamura ubushobozi bw’abana mu bumenyi bw’iby’indimi ku bana kuva ku mpinja kugera ku myaka 14.

4. Kwagura ubumenyi mu kibonezamvugo.
Inzobere zo mu Kigo gikurikirana ubuzima bw’imikurire y’abana zasobanuye ko ‘gusomera abana ibitabo byagura ubutunzi bwabo mu buryo bw’ikibonezamvugo : umubare ndetse n’ubwoko bw’amagambo bahura nabyo birushaho kugenda bizamuka.’ Aha birumvikana : ibitabo by’abana uzabasomera uzasanga amagambo menshi arimo atari ya magambo ukoresha mu biganiro byawe bisanzwe bya buri munsi. Mu gihe usoma ibitabo nk’ibi, akenshi uzahura n’amagambo yihariye aranga ibimera, inyamaswa, cyangwa se asobanura ingingo runaka yihariye. Ubushakashatsi bwakozwe mu mwaka wa 2019 bwagaragaje ko ‘abana basomewe mu buryo buhoraho kuva ku myaka 5 bageza ku gihe cyo kwinjira binjiye mu ishuri ry’incuke bamaze guhura n’amagambo agera kuri miliyoni 1.4 kurenza abana batigeze basomerwa muri iyo myaka yose’.

5. Kuzamura ubushobozi bw’umwana bwo kutaba indangare.
Umutoza w’ibyerekeye imibereho myiza y’umuryango witwa Dinah Castroyasangije abasomyi amakuru avuga ko ‘gusomera abana bituma bakuza imyitwarire yo gushyira umutima ku gikorwa bahugiyeho, gukumira ibirangaza ndetse no kubasha kwigenzura’. Ushobora kuba ufite umwana ugeze muri cya kigero cy’inkubaganyi -abenshi bakinyuramo ; ariko numugenzura neza uzasanga igihe cya ya saha mwagennye y’umwitozo wo gusoma inkuru aba abishyizeho umutima cyane, akurikiye kugira ngo abashe gusobanukirwa ibivugwa : uzabona ko yicaye hamwe atuje, ateze amatwi, ndetse iki ni cya gihe ubwonko bwe butangiye kwitoza gufata mu mutwe no gusesengura butangiye gukora cyane.

6. Kuvumbura / guhanga udushya.
Ibitabo n’inkuru umwana asomerwa bimufungurira isi nshya. Ni ukuri, kuko hariho ibitabo byinshi bivuga inkuru z’impamo ku nyamaswa zabayeho kera mu mateka y’isi, ku biriho ubu : udusimba duto, indege,…gusa hari nanone ibitabo nanone bibara inkuru mpimbano. Ibi birenga isi y’ibigaragara, bikinjira mu isi y’inzozi –fiction. Aha rero ni hahandi biba ngombwa ko umwana atekereza kure –thinking outside the box. Abahanga bo mu kigo PBS batangaje ko ‘ubwonko bw’abana ubusanzwe buba bufite ubushobozi bwo kwihimbira ibintu byinshi, bakajya kure mu ntekerezo. Kubasomera inkuru nk’izi rero byongera ubwo bushobozi, intego nyamukuru ari ukuzamura amatsiko agendana n’ibitekerezo bishya. Ibi bikagira kandi akamaro ko gukuza umwana mu buzima bwo mu mutwe, ari nako arushaho kumererwa neza’.

7. Amasomo y’ubuzima.
Gusoma ibitabo kandi biha umwana n’umubyeyi uburyo bwo kuganira ku mibereho isanzwe ya buri munsi, mu isi barimo. Ibi cyane cyane kuko bibashisha umwana kuganiriza umubyeyi we ku ngingo zitandukanye, ku rugero aba azumvaho nk’umwana. Abana akenshi bishimira ibitabo by’inkuru zivuga ku bana bari mu bigero bimwe, bivuga ku bikorwa bahura nabyo mu buzima bwa buri munsi.

Uko bagenda bigira imbere mu gusoma – ari nako bakura mu gihagararo, bya bikorwa bumvise mu nkuru zitandukanye bikorwa n’abandi bana nkabo (gufata ingendo mu gihugu, kujya kwikuza amenyo kwa muganga,…) bazagenda bahura nabyo, ariko usange barabyakira mu buryo bushikamye kurenza bamwe batigeze babiganirizwaho.

8. Gukura mu buryo bwo kubana n’abandi ndetse no mu buryo bw’amarangamutima.
Umuhanga Castro avuga kandi ko ‘gusomera abana bato bibigisha imyitwarire mu gihe bahuye n’ibihe bigoranye.’ Avuga kandi ko gusomera abana inkuru zivuga ku bihe runaka bisaba amarangamutima yihariye nko kwimukira ku ishuri rishya, guterwa inkingo,…bishobora gusembura ikiganiro cyatuma umwana aganirizwa, umubyeyi akamwumvisha ko amarangamutima ye ari asanzwe ku muntu muzima, nkawe.

Mbese igihe cyiza cyo gutangira gusomera abana ni ryari?

Tangira uyu munsi! impinja, ibitambambuga, incuke, ndetse n’abisumbuyeho, abana bose banezezwa kandi bungurwa no kwitabwaho muri ubu buryo. Nta n’ubwo ukeneye umurundo w’ibitabo kugira ngo ubashe gutangira !

Mu gusoza, ku byerekeye ingingo yo gusomera abana bato no kubatyaza mu rurimi, ari ingano -quantity ndetse n’imiterere –quality by’amagambo ukoresha ni ingenzi cyane. Igitabo ni igikoresho-rufunguzo mu guterura ikiganiro, mu kubarira inkuru ndetse no gokomeza urufatiro rw’umushyikirano hagato y’umubyeyi n’umwana.


Ubushakashatsi:
- Ashley Marcin&Karen Gill, MD. Benefits of reading to children.
- https://www.healthline.com.children’s-health-reading-to-children.
- National Center on Early Childhood Development, Teaching and Learning.
- Dinah Castro. Family well-being educator with Cornell Cooperative Extension.