IBIYOBYABWENGE :  ICYAGO CYIBASIYE URUBYIRUKO

IBIYOBYABWENGE : ICYAGO CYIBASIYE URUBYIRUKO

Hari ibishobora kuba ibiyobyabwenge kubera ibinyabutabire karemano bibirimo n’ubusanzwe bidakorana n’umubiri w’umuntu cyangwa se bikaba bisanzwe ntacyo byawutwara ariko byarenga igipimo runaka bigahindura imikoranire isanzwe yabyo n’umubiri.

Ivan Nyagatare

Ibiyobyabwenge byose byitwa bitya kuko bifite ubushobozi bwo kwangiza ubuzima bw’abantu–kuyobya ubwenge, kubata.

Hari ibishobora kuba ibiyobyabwenge kubera ibinyabutabire karemano bibirimo n’ubusanzwe bidakorana n’umubiri w’umuntu cyangwa se bikaba bisanzwe ntacyo byawutwara ariko byarenga igipimo runaka bigahindura imikoranire isanzwe yabyo n’umubiri.

By’umwihariko, hariho ibiyobyabwenge byangiza ubuzima kurusha ibindi.

Iki kikaba ikibazo cyugarije isi ya none muri rusange, urubyiruko by’umwihariko muri iyi minsi. Ababikurikiranira hafi bemeza ko –n’ubwo ibiyobyabwenge mu mateka ya muntu atari iby’ejo, gufata intera kw’iki kibazo bifitanye isano no kuba ‘isi yarahindutse umudugudu’ [global village], imvugo ikoreshwa iganisha ku kuba ikoranabuhanga rikomeje gukataza rigana imbere ari nako rihuza amamiliyoni y’abantu ku isi –akenshi bo mu bice, imico, imyemerere, imibereho n’ibindi bitandukanye.

Muri iyi mico n’imibereho hakabamo ikoreshwa ry’ibiyobyabwenge ku ngero zitandukanye mu miryango itandukanye bishingiye kuri rya tandukaniro mu miterere tubonye haruguru. Iki kibazo rero kikaba gishamikiye ku kuba urujya n’uruza rw’abantu n’ibintu rwarorohejwe, bityo gutunda no guhererekanya ibiyobyabwenge bikaba biri ku rwego rwo hejuru uyu munsi, ndetse no kwigishanya ikoreshwa ryabyo bikoroshywa na murandasi.

Ubu tugiye kuganira ku biyobyabwenge bihitana abantu kuruta ibindi, ndetse n’imyumvire y’abantu batandukanye twaganiriye kuiri iyi ngingo, ndetse n’icyo bumva cyakorwa mu gukumira izi mpfu, cyane cyane ziganje mu bakiri bato [kandi bizwi neza ko ari bo shingiro ry’umuryango wa muntu].



Twagerageje gukora icyegeranyo ku biyobyabwenge bya mbere 5 bihitana benshi ku isi :

  1. Itabi.
    Kimwe n’inzoga, itabi naryo riri mu mateka ya muntu kuva ibinyejana. Ariko kubera ubumara bw’ikinyabutabire cya nicotine ryifitemo, naryo rifite ubushobozi bwo gukangura imyakura y’ibyiyumvo no kuzamura umusemburo wa dopamine. Bityo, abantu bararikunda cyane ku buryo aho kugira ngo uwarinyweye abashe kurigabanya cyangwa se kurireka, ahubwo akomeza kongera igipimo cy’iryo anywa uko bukeye n’uko bwije ! Ubushakashatsi buherutse kugaragaza ko itabi ari nyirabayazana w’impfu zirenga ibihumbi 480 muri Amerika ku mwaka, kandi ibikorwa byo guhangana naryo n’ingaruka zirikomokaho bigatwara miliyari y’amadolari ku mwaka. Abantu banywa itabi nibo baza ku isonga mu bahitanwa na kanseri y’imyanya y’ubuhumekero, cyane cyane ibihaha. Ibi bikangana na 90% by’impfu zikomoka ku bihaha mu bapfa buri mwaka muri Amerika.
  2. Inzoga.
    Inzoga ubusanzwe ni kimwe mu binyobwa bifite umuzi muremure mu mateka ya muntu ku isi. Ku rugero rusanzwe, kunywa inzoga ni ibisanzwe. Nyamara kuko nazo zigizwe n’ibinyabutabire by’amoko atandukanye, mu gihe harengejwe igipimo umubiri ushobora kwakira, zihinduka uburozi njyanamuntu. Kubera iyo mpamvu, ubushakashatsi bwagaragaje ko inzoga zihitana abagera ku 88,000 muri Amerika buri mwaka kubera kuzinywa mu buryo burengeje igipimo umubiri ushobora kwihanganira.
  3. Fentanyl.
    Iki ni ikiyobyabwenge gikomeye, gikomoka ku ruvange rw’ibinyabutabire bivangirwa mu nganda zikora imiti, kigakorwa ubusanzwe kigenewe gukoreshwa mu buvuzi bugamije kugabanya ububabare n’uburibwe bw’umubiri. Ubusanzwe cyagakoreshejwe na muganga gusa, kuko ari we umenya umurwayi ukeneye uyu muti ndetse n’urugero agomba kumugenera hagendewe ku ngingo nyinshi zigomba gusuzumanwa ubushishozi. Nyamara muri iki gihe, ni henshi bigaragara ko gisohoka mu bubiko bw’izo nganda n’ahandi hatandukanye, maze kikagaragara ku isoko gikoreshwa mu buryo bunyuranye n’amategeko. Iki kiyobyabwenge cyagaragaje ko ari kibi cyane kuko ubushakashatsi bwagaragaje ko ku mwaka gishobora kwica abantu ku mpuzandengo ya 18,335 biturutse ku kuba bagikoresheje.
    Uyu mubare ungana na 30% by’imfu zose ziterwa n’ibiyobyabwenge.
  4. Héroïne.
    Mu mwaka wa 2016 OMS ivuga ko héroïne yishe abantu bagera ku 16,000. Birumvikana ko iki kiyobyabwenge kiri mu biyobyabwenge bihitana abantu benshi ku isi muri iki gihe. Byongeye kandi, kubera ko heroine ikunze gukoreshwa mu buvuzi ihuzwa n’indi miti, uyikoresheje ashobora gupfa iyo ayikoresheje bwa mbere. Kubera ko heroine nayo ibata uwayifashe, biragoye cyane kugira ngo umuntu wabaswe nayo ayireke.
  5. Cocaïne.
    Iki kiyobyabwenge gikomeje kwamamara uko bucya bukira. Raporo ya OMS / WHO ivuga ko mu mwaka w’2011 cyahitanye abantu 5,070 mu gihe nyuma y’imyaka 6 –ni ukuvuga mu mwaka wa 2016 cyahitanye abantu 11,316 ! Kimwe na héroïne, cocaine izamura umusemburo w’ibyishimo wa Dopamine utuma uwayikoresheje abatwa nayo, ntabashe kuyigobotora.

Twaganiriye kandi na bamwe mu bantu twahuye nabo, maze batubwira icyo batekereza ku ngingo y’ibiyobyabwenge n’ubwangizi bwabyo mu muryango mugari, ndetse n’uburyo byarwanywa:

Hakizimana Eliot –Umwarimu, imyaka 52. « Ibiyobyabwenge mu isi ya none ni icyorezo, noneho mu rubyiruko –cyane cyane urujijutse kiri gufata intera iteye impungenge. Ikintu mbona cyakorwa kugira ngo urubyiruko rugenze make mu kwijandika mu biyobyabwenge –kuko kuvuga ngo byacika burundu byo byaba ari ukurota ku manywa no kwigerezaho ! hariho imvugo igira iti ‘kamere ntikurwa na reka !’ icya mbere ni ubukangurambaga buhoraho kandi bwagutse ndetse n’inama bihereye mu babyeyi babo. Kubera ko urubyiruko rwinshi rutangira gukoresha ibiyobyabwenge ari bato. Uyu munsi hari ikintu gihari mu babyeyi ngo ‘umwana yarenze ihaniro’. Hambere impamvu urubyiruko rutijandikaga bikabije mu biyobyabwenge kurusha ubu, ni ukubera ko ababyeyi bari bazi guhana nk’inshingano za kibyeyi. Bagahana abana bakiri bato, babaganiriza mu kubagira inama, babereka ibyiza n’imbaraga bifitemo ubwabo. Ababyeyi rero nibo nkingi ya mwamba mu kuganiriza abana babo kugira ngo babereke imbaraga zabo no gukomera kwabo kw’ejo hazaza, ndetse n’uburyo umuryango mugari barimo, igihugu n’isi bibahanze amaso. Guhana kwa kibyeyi tuvuga hano kandi, ntabwo ari umubyeyi n’umwana mu nzu gusa : umubyeyi aha ni uwabyaye, umuturanyi, mwalimu, n’undi wese ushobora kujya mu cyimbo cy’ababyeyi. Bityo rwa rubyiruko rumaze kwisobanukirwa ntabwo bizaba byoroshye kurukururira mu ikoreshwa ry’ibiyobyabwenge.»

Niyibizi Anna – Umuganga. Imyaka 49. « Ibiyobyabwenge nta keza kabyo mu buryo ubwo ari bwo bwose kandi noneho biri gufata intera iteye amakenga. Icyakorwa rero ngo habeho gucubya iki kibazo, ni uko habaho ubukangurambaga buhereye ku bantu bakuru ; ku buryo igihe babonye abato bari kwijandika mu bidakwiye –biteye isoni harimo no gukoresha ibiyobyabwenge, bakwiriye kubahanura ndetse no kubahana nta kujonjora ngo uyu ndamuzi, uyu simuzi. Byahozeho mu muco nyarwanda, umubyeyi yahaniraga umuryango. Naho ubundi nidukomeza kubirenza ingohe turi ababyeyi, iki kibazo turaza kwisanga cyarenze akarwa ! »

Hamza Karasira. Umudozi. Imyaka 37. « Bivugwa ko uwamaze kubatwa n’ibiyobyabwenge nta bushobozi ubwe aba agifite bwo kubyigobotoramo, n’ubwo yaba afite ubushake bukomeye. Ubwo rero kuko uwageze aha aba atanacyumva impanuro, ubujyanama cyangwa se ibindi bihano ababyeyi n’umuryango byamufatira, ubwo uwo aba asigaye mu kuboko kwa leta : leta n’abafatanyabikorwa bayo bagomba guhaguruka mu ngamba zikarishye zirimo nke navuga hano : (i) kurwanya ubushomeri mu rubyiruko butuma rwiheba rugaha icyuho abaruganisha mu bushukanyi butandukanye ari nazo nzira bahuriramo na bya biyobyabwenge –mu kubitunda, kubicuruza ndetse no kubikoresha. (ii) guhagurukira guhana ababyijanditsemo –cyane cyane ababikora, ababitunda n’aboroshya ihererekanya ryabyo. (iii) kongerera ubushobozi ibigo bya leta n’ibyigenga bikora ubukangurambaga, kwigisha uburere mboneragihugu mu rubyiruko muri rusange, n’ubuvuzi ku bamaze kubatwa nabyo by’umwihariko, hagamijwe kubagobotora mu ijanja ryabyo. (iv) mu rwego rwo kongerera ubushobozi urubyiruko mu nzira yo kwikorera, imigambi yashyizweho na leta yo gushyigikira abakiri bato mu kwihangira umurimo ikwiriye kuva mu magambo ikajya mu bikorwa bifatika, bigera kuri bose. »

Muri make, ikibazo kirahari kandi cyibasiye urubyiruko kurusha abakuze.

Birumvikana ko uruhare nyambere mu guhangana n’iki kibazo ari urw’urubyiruko ubwarwo. Umuryango nawo ugataho mu kubaha impanuro, kubereka inzira nyayo n’amahirwe abari imbere. Uruhare rwa leta n’abafatanyabikorwa bayo ni ukubatera ingabo mu bitugu babashyiriraho ibikorwaremezo na gahunda ziborohereza mu rugendo rwo kwiteza imbere, ndetse no gushyira mu bikorwa amategeko muri rusange.