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UBURYO IKIBAZO CYO GUTENTEBUKA MU INSHINGANO KIGARAGARA

UBURYO IKIBAZO CYO GUTENTEBUKA MU INSHINGANO KIGARAGARA

Ibi bishatse kuvuga ‘imimerere ishingiye ku buzima bwo mu mutwe yigaragaza mu myifatire y’umukozi nk’uruhurirane rw’amarangamutima n’ibikorwa bigaragazwa no gucika intege, kubihirwa ndetse no kuba utagitanga umusaruro’.

Ivan Nyagatare
Ivan Nyagatare

Kuva aho iki kibazo cyagaragariye mu isi y’umurimo, mu Kinyarwanda kigenekereje, ikibazo cya ‘professional burnout’ gisobanurwa nko ‘gutentebuka mu nshingano’.

Ibi bishatse kuvuga ‘imimerere ishingiye ku buzima bwo mu mutwe yigaragaza mu myifatire y’umukozi nk’uruhurirane rw’amarangamutima n’ibikorwa bigaragazwa no gucika intege, kubihirwa ndetse no kuba utagitanga umusaruro’. Mu gihe umukozi yahuye n’iki kibazo, ntaba agifite ya marangamutima amusunikira kwinikiza akazi agakunze rwose, ahubwo atangira kwitaza bagenzi be ndetse n’abo ashinzwe kwitaho mu kazi agatangira kubarenza ingohe. Umusaruro uva muri ibi ni uko muri rusange umuntu nawe ubwe atangira kwiyumva nk’udashoboye rwose.

Mu gihe uburemere bw’ibikorwa n’amarangamutima birangwa no gucika intege, kubihirwa ndetse no kuba utagitanga umusaruro biduha ishusho y’uburyo gutentebuka mu kazi bishobora gusenya umukozi, ntabwo bitugaragariza neza impamvu abakozi bamwe bitwara mu buryo butandukanye muri iki kibazo: ni mpamvu ki abantu 2 bakora akazi kamwe, bari mu ikipe imwe, kandi bahura n’ingorane zimwe mu kazi bitwara mu buryo butandukanye mu gihe badukiriwe n’ikibazo cyo gutentebuka mu kazi?

Itsinda ry’abashakashatsi bakorera mu Ishami rishinzwe Ubumenyi ku ndwara zo mu mutwe muri Kaminuza ya Zaragoza muri Esipanye bafashe icyemezo cyo guhimba imbata y’inyigo yifashishijwe mu gusesengura ikibazo cyo gutentebuka mu nshingano, hagendewe ko buryo abakozi bitwara mu gihe bahanganye n’iki kibazo.

Ikibazo cyo gutentebuka mu kazi gishobora gufata amasura atandukanye.

Mu gihe kugeza ubu nta bushakashatsi buragaragaza urugero iki kibazo gihagazeho mu isi y’umurimo ya none, ibimenyetso biranga iki kibazo byemejewe n’Ishami ry’Umuryango w’Abibumbye wita Ku Buzima mu gihe ryakoraga Urutonde Mpuzamahanga rw’Indwara ruheruka ko ari ‘ikibazo gifitanye isano n’imikorere y’akazi’. Iki kibazo gishobora kwadukira buri wese, kandi akenshi gishobora kwaduka gitunguro, no ku mukozi ukinjira mu mwuga. Mu gitabo cye ‘Anxiety’, Umwanditsi Sonali Gupta yanditse ko : “Abantu benshi mu bavutse muri iyi myaka ya za 2000, muri bo abatangiye akazi bari mu kigero kiyingayinga imyaka 21 y’ubukuru, batangira guhura n’iki kibazo bagejeje mu myaka 26 – 27 y’ubukuru. Bongera gukubitana n’iki kibazo bwa kabiri mu gihe bageze mu myaka 29 – 30 y’ubukuru. Iki akenshi nicyo gihe abantu babasha gutobora bakavuga ikibazo bafite, bagasaba ubufasha, kuko baba batekereza ko ari cyo gihe gikwiriye kandi bizera ko kuva bamaze imyaka igera mu 10 mu nshingano, iyi myaka itabuze icyo igabanyije ku mbaraga binjiranye mu kazi”

Mu gihe cy’imyaka myinshi, ikibazo cyo gutentebuka mu nshingano cyibeshywagaho nk’aho ari ikibazo kigira imiterere imwe mu bakozi bose bahuye nacyo. Nyamara byaje kugaragara ko cyaduka mu buryo butandukanye bitewe n’umuntu ku giti cye.

Abashakashatsi ba Kaminuza ya Zaragoza bagaragaje ko “Ikibazo cyo gutentebuka mu nshingano kigaragara nk’aho ari ikibazo gifite imiterere imwe ndetse kirangwa n’ibimenyetso bimwe bidahinduka, bikomoka ku guhangana igihe kirambye n’ibibazo biteza akajagari -stressors mu buzima bw’umukozi ku kazi. […] ariko ubushakashatsi kuri iki kibazo bwaje kugaragaza ko gutentebuka mu nshingano byigaragaza mu buryo butandukanye, ndetse bushobora gushyirwa mu byiciro hagendewe ku rugero rw’ubwitange umukozi asanzwe agaragaza mu gihe ahawe inshingano”.

Hagendewe ku mbata y’inyigo bakoze kuri iki kibazo, imyitwarire umukozi agira mu gihe ahanganye n’iki kibazo ishobora kwifashishwa mu gusobanukirwa ikibazo yahuye nacyo isura cyigaragazamo:

  • Umukozi ukotana.
    Umukozi ukomeza agakora, agakotana; ntatambamirwe no kuba yiyumva arengewe kandi aremerewe n’inshingano z’akazi. Uyu mukozi yirengagiza ibyo akeneye ubwe mu buzima bwe kugira ngo asohoze inshingano z’akazi ke uko ziremereye kose. Mu magambo ya ba bashakashatsi ba Kaminuza ya Zaragoza: “umukozi ubarizwa muri iki cyiciro n’ubwo yaba yahuye n’ikibazo cyo gutentebuka mu kazi, akomeza gukora atizigama, kugeza ubwo acogoye, aharanira kugera ku ntsinzi. Akomeza kugaragaza ubwitange, amatwara mu kazi no kudasubizwa hasi n’uburemere bw’akazi.”
  • Umukozi wiyumva nk’aho ‘atanyeganyezwa / atageragezwa n’akazi akora’.
    Uyu mukozi ashobora kugaragara nk’ikinyuranyo cy’uwo tubonye haruguru. Yiyumva nk’aho akazi akora katajya kamuha amahirwe yo kwiyungura mu bushobozi bwe bwa kinyamwuga: “Umukozi ubarizwa mu cyiciro cy’abiyumva nk’aho akazi katabagerageza / katabanyeganyeza ngo kabahe amahirwe yo kwiyungura arangwa no gukorera mu miterere idahinduka y’akazi. Ibi bigatuma atabasha kumva anyuzwe ndetse buhoro buhoro akagenda agaragaza gutakaza uburyohe mu kazi, kurambirwa bijyana no kudashishikazwa no kugira icyo yiyunguye mu mikorere ye.”
  • Umukozi wiyumva intege zimushiranye.
    Urananiwe rwose: mu mutwe, amarangamutima ari hasi, ndetse nta n’imbaraga mu mubiri. Aha ni mu gihe ibintu ku kazi bitari kugenda neza nk’uko byakagenze, ugacika intege, ukarekera aho kugerageza, mu yandi magambo ukikorera amaboko. Birangira ubaye ntibindeba / mbonabihita, ndetse utanakibashije kwishyiramo akanyabugabo.

Isura iyo ari yo yose ikibazo cyigaragazamo, gutentebuka mu nshingano si shinganwa ko kiba ikibazo cy’umuntu ku giti cye. Gishobora guhererekanwa, ndetse biniswe ko ‘umukozi umwe ashobora kucyanduza abamuzengurutse nk’uko indwara yandura iba ishobora kwadukira abakikije umurwayi’ nta kwibeshya kwaba kurimo.

Ba bashakashatsi bo muri Kaminuza ya Zaragoza kuri ino ngingo bavuze ko “Wa mukozi ukotana ashobora kwinubira imiterere y’uruhererekane rw’ubuyobozi, kuko iyi miterere itambamira gushamaduka kwe, bityo akumva ari nko kumuzitira mu kugera ku byo aba yumva we yageraho; naho wa mukozi wiyumva nk’aho ‘atanyeganyezwa / atageragezwa n’akazi akora’ azitotombera kuba nta mpinduka abona mu miterere y’akazi ke, kuko azaba yumva ko uko guhora mu kazi kamwe ari byo bikomeza kumusyigingiza mu kuba yatera imbere ubwe; mu gihe wa mukozi wiyumva intege zimushiranye azinubira uburyo bwo kugenzura imikorere, kubera ko uko kugenzura ari byo bizamutamaza mu bunebwe bwe bukomoka ku kuba yarototewe no gutentebuka. Noneho rero, muri iyo mimerere idasanzwe yo guhora abakozi runaka binuba, bitotomba, banenga akazi mu matamatama bizarushaho kongera ahubwo kunanirwa mu mutwe, ni ruto ni ruto imyitwarire idahwitse nayo itangira kubagaragaraho. Iki cyuka ntikizatinda kototera n’abandi bakozi basanzwe bameze neza, mu buryo nk’ubwo indwara yandura yadukira abari hafi y’uyirwaye.”

Ubwo tumaze gusuzuma izi ngingo rero, noneho ni buryo ki twahangana n’ikibazo cyo gutentebuka mu nshingano, bityo nticyadukire bagenzi bacu mu kazi?

Uburyo bwo guhangana n’ikibazo cyo gutentebuka mu nshingano.
“Uko igihe gitambuka, ikibazo cyo gutentebuka mu nshingano kigaragara nk’igishingiye ku rwego rwo kubihirwa, guhurwa ndetse no kwirengagiza inshingano umukozi wahuye nacyo aba agezeho.” Ariko nanone, ntabwo ariko buri wese abihirwa ngo akure umutima ku kazi ke, asigare agakora nk’uwikiza, bikaba ingaruka z’ikibazo cyo gutentebuka.

Mu nyandiko yabo, abashakashatsi bakoze urutonde rw’ingamba abakozi bitabaza mu gihe bakubitanye n’ikibazo cyo gutentebuka mu nshingano bakabihirwa n’akazi. Uko bigaragara kuri urwo rutonde, ingamba bamwe bitabaza zishobora kuba nziza ku buzima, izindi nazo zikaba zitaboneye:

  1. Kwisunga abo mubana, abo mukorana, umuryango, inshuti.
  2. Guhungira mu iyobokamana.
  3. Imyidagaduro n’Urwenya.
  4. Kwitabaza imiti (ibinyabutabire).
  5. Gukora igenabikorwa.
  6. Guhindura imyitwarire n’imico.
  7. Gucenshura amarangamutima.
  8. Kwiyakira.
  9. Kunanirwa kwiyakira, guhakana.
  10. Kwifata.
  11. Gushishikarira gushakisha umuti w’ibibazo.
  12. Kwiyungura no gukura mu mutwe.
  13. Kugerageza kubona ibintu mu ndorerwamo nshya n’isura nziza.
  14. Guhungira mu bikorwa bikurangaza.
  15. Gufunga umutwe, kutakira ibiri kukubaho.

Gushakisha ubufasha mu bo mubana, kwifashisha imyidagaduro n’urwenya hagamijwe koroshya ikibazo, kwicara ugashyira ku murongo igenabikorwa mu kazi kawe, kwiyakira mu marangamutima ndetse n’intugunda mu mutwe, gushishikarira gushakisha umuti w’ibibazo, cyangwa se kugerageza kubona ibintu mu ndorerwamo nshya n’isura nziza;…zose ni ingamba z’ubutwari zikoreshwa na bamwe cyangwa se abandi mu buryo bwo kubonera igisubizo ikibazo baba bahanganye nacyo. Ku rundi ruhande, guhungira ibibazo byacu mu nzoga, mu guhunga kwiyakira, gufunga umutwe no kutakira ibiri kutubaho ni ingamba z’ubugwari kandi zidafasha na gato mu kibazo, n’ubwo hari abazitabaza —kandi nanone zishobora kugira ingaruka mbi kuri bagenzi bawe.

Hadashingiwe ku ngamba uzahitamo gukoresha mu guhangana n’ikibazo cyo gutentebuka mu nshingano, uko urushijeho kuvumbura ibimeyetso by’iki kibazo amazi atararenga inkombe, niko bizakorohera no guhangana nacyo. Hejuru y’ingaruka mbi iki kibazo kizagira ku buzima bwawe bwo mu mutwe, gutentebuka mu nshingano ntibizabura no guhonyora ubushobozi bwawe bwo kwadukana udushya mu kazi.

Ubwo rero inama isumba izindi, mu gihe ukubitanye n’iki kibazo kikagushyira hasi, wihatiriza ngo uhatane. Mu kigwi cy’ibyo, saba ubufasha. Fata akanya ko guhumeka. Gerageza kwiha umwanya wo kwisuzuma byimbitse.