IMFUNGUZO Z'ITERAMBERE NI IGENABIKORWA N'INGENGABIHE

IMFUNGUZO Z'ITERAMBERE NI IGENABIKORWA N'INGENGABIHE

Ivan Nyagatare

Igenabikorwa n’ingengabihe: urufunguzo mu iterambere.

Igenabikorwa ni gahunda igizwe n’intambwe zirimo kwishyiriraho intego no kugena uruhererekane rw’ibikorwa bigomba gushyirwa mu bikorwa kugira ngo za ntego zigerweho, ndetse ugashyiraho n’uburyo uru ruhererekane [ingengabihe] rugomba gukurikirana.

Igenabikorwa ritangirwa no kwishyiriraho intego. Intego zikomoka ku ndoto zishingiye ku gusobanukirwa icyo ugamije. Ikigamijwe kivugwa hano ni ugusobanura icyo ikigo runaka, ubushabitsi runaka,…bishaka kugeraho:kwaguka, kongera imali, kubaka izina, ibi ntibisobanure ko ari shinganwa gushyirirwaho imbibe n’ibyo ikigo runaka, ubushabitsi,… bishobora kugeraho gusa.

Imibereho, imikorere by’ikigo, ubushabitsi,…ubusanzwe bigongana na gahunda ziri hanze y’ubuzima bwabyo: abakeba, amategeko, igipimo cy’ubushobozi buhari, n’ibindi.—ndetse na gahunda z’imbere mu buzima bw’ikigo, ubushabitsi: ubumenyi n’ubushobozi by’abakozi, ibikoresho ndetse n’amikoro Bihari, ubushobozi bw’itsinda riyoboye. Aya makuru yose asuzumirwa muri gahunda yiswe n’abahanga mu bukungu [SWOT analysis]. Isesengura ry’uruhurirane rw’indoto, ibigamijwe, ndetse n’umusaruro witezwe kuvamo niryo ritanga intego z’ikigo.

Ikiba gisigaye muri gahunda y’igenabikorwa ni ukugaragaza mu buryo bufatika uko izo ntego zizagerwaho. Aha harimo kugaragaza neza ubushobozi bukenewe ndetse n’aho buzakomoka, kugaragaza urutonde rw’inshingano zigomba gushyirwa mu bikorwa ndetse no kugena uko izo nshingano zigomba gukurikirana, ndetse no gukora ingengabihe ndetse irimo n’imihigo igomba kugenda igaragaza intambwe ku yindi ko ibikorwa biri gukorwa bidateshuka mu mujyo ugana kuri za ntego.


Uruhare rw’igenabikorwa mu kuzamura umusaruro mu itsinda.

Mu isi ya none irangwa no ‘kugendera ku muvuduko’ –rimwe na rimwe bamwe bagatwarwa na serwakira babyitiranya no kugendera ku muvuduko, gukora igenabikorwa ry’amezi macye byagaragarira bamwe nk’igikorwa cy’imfabusa. Ariko nanone, byagaragaye ko ari ingorabahizi kurasa ku ntego mu gihe wihaye gahunda yagutse ku rugero runaka, ikubiyemo urusobe rw’ibikorwa byinshi. Igenabikorwa rero rifasha gushyira ibikorwa mu byiciro, noneho ukabasha gutera intambwe zijya imbere n’ubwo waba uhanganye no gushidikanya mu isi ihindagurika uko bwije uko bukeye. Zimwe mu ngaruka nziza zo gukora igenabikorwa ni izi:

  • Igenabikorwa ritanga inzira yo gushyira mu bikorwa ibigamijwe. Gutegura gahunda biyobora ibikorwa bya buri wese, bikamurinda guhusha intego zigamijwe. Iyo ibikorwa bihujwe kandi bikerekezwa ku ntego runaka ifatika, bituma umusaruro wiyongera.
  • Igenabikorwa rituma habaho gukoresha neza ubushobozi buhari. Igihe cyose ubushobozi buba bukenewe kugira ngo ikigo, ubushabitsi,…bibashe gukomeza kubaho. Niyo mpamvu abagize itsinda riyoboye baba bagomba guhora bari maso, cyane cyane bagenzura ko ubushobozi bukoreshwa uko bugenda bugenwa kandi bugakoreshwa muri gahunda bwagenewe. Rya genabikorwa rero rifasha itsinda riyoboye kumenya aho ubushobozi bukenewe byihutirwa kurenza ahandi, bityo bakabugenera aho bugomba kubyara umusaruro ushimishije kurenza ahandi, mu gihe runaka.
  • Igenabikorwa ritera akanyabugabo n’ubwitange mu bakozi. Abantu ntabwo bagira ubwitange iyo badafite intego runaka zibasunukira kuzirasaho mu gihe runaka kizwi, cyangwa se igihe badasobanukiwe neza umusaruro nyir’izina umukoresha wabo abitezeho. Igenabikorwa rero rikuraho guhuzagurika gushoboka kose ndetse rikagaragaza mu buryo buzira igihu icyo buri wese yitezweho n’icyo agomba gukora. Byagaragaye ko abakozi batanga umusaruro ushimishije igihe bakora bazi ikibategerejweho kandi bagisobanukiwe neza.
  • Igenabikorwa rishyiraho ibipimo byo kugenzuriraho uko imihigo yeswa. Igenabikorwa rigaragaza neza umusaruro ugamije kugerwaho ndetse n’intego zihariye zigomba kugenda ziraswaho mu rugendo rugana kuri wa musaruro. Izi ntego rero nizo zigenerwaho ibipimo byifashishwa mu gusuzuma niba ibintu biri kugenda mu buryo bwateganyijwe cyangwa se igihe habayeho guteshuka ku nzira, itsinda riyoboye rikamenya igihe cyo gukosorera ndetse n’aho byapfiriye.
  • Igenabikorwa rifasha mu koroshya akazi kakagoranye mu bundi buryo. Binyuze mu nzira yo kugena ibikorwa ngenderwaho mu gihe runaka, itsinda riyoboye ribasha gusesengura neza ubushobozi buri mu kigo, ubushabitsi,…ndetse n’inzitizi izo ari zo zose zakomoka hanze ya gahunda bateguye, bityo bakabasha kujyanisha ubushobozi buhari n’ingamba zo kuzigenzura, kuzikumira. Igihe habaye impinduka zidateganyijwe muri mu igenabikorwa ryateguwe, itsinda riyoboye ribasha kuzitahura bidatinze ndetse ntirinagorwe no gufata ibyemezo byo gukoresha ubushobozi buhari mu guhangana n’izo mpinduka zitunguranye.

Igenabikorwa mu kuzamura umusaruro w’umuntu / umukozi

Aha birumvikana niba nk’umuntu [individual] ugendera ku igenabikorwa, uzashobora gukora byinshi mu gihe gito –kubyaza umusaruro igihe cyawe, bityo ubashe kwisagurira igihe cyo kwiyitaho: kwita ku muryango, kwidagadura, kwita ku zindi nshingano ziatndukanye n’akazi. Ariko se ubundi, bigomba gukorwa mu buhe buryo; kandi ni ubuhe buryo bwiza kurenza ubundi: gutegura igenabikorwa ku rupapuro cyangwa kwifashisha porogaramu yateguwe mu ikoranabuhanga rya mudasobwa? Ikibazo nyacyo ni ukwibaza ngo mbese kubera iki nkwiriye guhitamo ubu buryo cyangwa buriya bundi?

Gukoresha porogaramu ifasha muri gahunda y’igenabikorwa yateguwe mu ikoranabuhanga bifite ibyiza bigaragara nko kubasha kubika amakuru yose agendanye nabyo mu ikoranabuhanga [cloud storage], guhuza no gushyira ku gihe amakuru agendanye na gahunda zawe mu buryo bworoshye, n’ibindi; ariko nanone gukoresha uburyo busanzwe bw’igenabikorwa bifite ibyiza byabyo harimo kukuzamura mu byiyumvo [improving your cognitive functions], kuzamura amarangamutima yawe no kwigirira icyizere, kwiyungura ubumenyi bikomoka ku gushishikazwa no gushakisha amakuru aho kurindira ko mudasobwa ari yo iyagukusanyiriza ikayaguha, akanya umara mu isomer ushaka amakuru nako ni ingirakamaro ku mubiri kurusha kwicara imbere ya mudasobwa, byose bikakwizanira utavuye aho uri. Icyiza kurenzaho ni uko ubu buryo bwombi –ubwa kera bw’inyandiko cyangwa se ubugezweho bw’ikoranabuhanga rya mudasobwa bishobora gukorana, byuzuzanya ku buryo bifatanyiriza kukuzanira ibyiza, mu gihe uri kwishimira kugenda urasa ku ntego mu kazi kawe no mu buzima muri rusange.

Igenabikorwa ni igikoresho kigufasha gukumira umujagararo [stress control] mu kazi no mu buzima bwa buri munsi. Ibigutera kujagarara bishobora kuba bimwe mu bigize imibereho yawe ya buri munsi. Ariko noneho kumenya neza uburyo ugomba kubigenzura bishobora kuzana impinduka zikomeye ku miterere y’ubuzima ubamo. Biri mahire ko gutegura igenabikorwa ari bumwe mu buryo bwizewe bwo kugenzura umujagararo ushobora kukwibasira. Gutegura igenabikorwa mu buryo butaziguye, mu kigwi cyo gukora gahunda nk’utwarwa n’umuvumba w’ibije byose byagaragaye ko bigabanya umujagararo [stress] kandi bikaganisha ku kurushaho kugera ku ntego z’ubuzima – ubuzima bufite intego.

  • Kubaho ubuzima n’imikorere byubakiye ku igenabikorwa biguha ubuzima bwiza bw’ubwonko nk’umuntu ndetse n’imitekerereze yagutse nk’ukataje mu iterambere. Bamwe babibona nk’ibitangaje –abandi ntibanabyiteho, ariko burya gutegura igenabikorwa ryawe mu mpapuro bigufasha kwiyibutsa, kwiga kurushaho ndetse bikanatoza ubwonko bwawe ubushobozi bwo kwibuka byinshi. Ibi ni ukuri; kuko uko ugenda wandika gahunda yawe n’intoki birushaho kugirira ubwonko bwawe akamaro. Mu gihe tutajya twiyumvisha ko dushobora kubaho mu isi ya none tutibangikanyije ibikoresho byacu by’ikoranabuhanga, iyi ngingo iratwibutsa twese ko bitureba kugerageza gukumira ubusumbane hagati y’isi y’ikoranabuhanga [ishobora gusasira ubunebwe] n’imikorere isanzwe ikoresha urupapuro, ikaramu na crayon. Mureke twandike igenabikorwa ryacu!
  • Gukora igenabikorwa bifasha umukozi / umuntu kurasa ku ntego zitandukanye. Ni izihe ntego zawe z’umwaka 2030, kandi urateganya ute kuzigeraho? Mbere yo gusubiza iki kibazo, ukwiriye kuba uzi ko kwandika igenabikorwa ryawe ku rupapuro bikongerera ubushobozi bwawe bwo kwibuka mu mutwe intego zawe z’igihe kigufi n’iz’igihe kirambye. Ikirenze ibyo, bigufasha gukomeza kwigenzura ugendeye ku ntego zawe, ugashyiraho imihigo yo kuzirasaho ndetse n’intambwe za ngombwa zo kuzigeraho.
  • Igenabikorwa rituma ubasha kuzamura umusaruro wawe –mu kazi cyangwa se ku giti cyawe. Ubushakashatsi bwakozwe n’urubuga ericondren.com bwagaragaje ko abagera ku ijanisha rya 93% bemeje ko ‘gukora igenabikorwa rigendeye ku ngengabihe ihamye’ byabashoboje kuzamura umusaruro wabo ku rugero batageragaho mu mikorere isanzwe mbere. Kwandika igenabikorwa ryawe kandi bigufasha gusubira inyuma ukagenzura imikorere yawe, maze ukamenya neza igufasha kuzamura umusaruro n’itagufasha, bityo ukagenda uvugurura imikorere muri ubwo buryo –ari nako urushaho kuzamura umusaruro.
  • Gukora igenabikorwa bigufasha kuzigama igihe. Kuzigama igihe ni ubumenyi bw’ingenzi cyane kugira ngo ubashe gutera imbere [ndetse unamererwe neza mu mubiri no mu mutwe], ariko twese turabizi ko iyi ari intambara itoroshye kandi ya buri kanya. Igenamigambi ni uburyo bwiza bwo kuzigama iki gihe tugenda dutakaza ni ruto ni ruto, rimwe na rimwe tutabizi. Nubigerageza, uzabona ingano y’igihe uzazigama buri munsi, buri cyumweru, buri kwezi…noneho ibaze igihe ushobora kuzigama ku kwezi, ku mwaka! Ibanga hano ni uko ‘uko ugenda uzigama igihe, nacyo ukakigenamo igikorwa runaka niko bigenda birushaho kugukundisha akamenyero ko gukorera ku ngengabihe, gutyo gutyo!’Kwandika igenabikorwa ryawe bigufasha kuruhuka kureba muri mudasobwa ndetse bikagufasha gutekereza byimbitse [develop mindfulness]. Rimwe na rimwe mu kazi hari igihe wumva ushaka gucomokora mudasobwa ngo uruhuke. Niba bikumereye bityo, fata akanya iminota 10-20 maze wandike ku rupapuro ibitekerezo bikujemo, gahunda zikurikiraho ndetse n’igenabikorwa bijyanye. Tureba igihe kirekire mu birahuri bya mudasobwa kandi kunanizwa nabyo ni ikibazo kiriho. Gufata akanya ko gukorera ku rupapuro bituma ubasha kuruhuka ibyo byuma, ariko mu mutwe wawe ugakomeza gukora uri mu gihe cya none [present], utarangajwe n’umunaniro.
  • Gukora igenabikorwa n’ingengabihe yaryo byongera umunezero. Ubushakashatsi bwagaragaje ko kugira akamenyero ko gukora igenabikorwa bishobora kuzamura amarangamutima yawe, bigatuma ubaho unezerewe. Kureba mu gitabo cy’igenabikorwa cyawe ukabona ko wamaze kurasa ku ntego umubare runaka kandi ko uri kwegereza amasaha yagenewe ubusabane runaka, guhura n’abandi mu mikino, kujya mu biruhuko cyangwa se se usatira intego nyamukuru runaka bikuganisha ku byiyumvo byo kuganura ku munezero bya bikorwa bikuganishamo.
    Nta byera ngo de! Hari inzitizi zishobora kuboneka mu igenabikorwa ritagenzuwe.
  • Igenabikorwa nta gushidikanya rizanira inyungu nyinshi ibigo, ubushabitsi, ndetse n’undi wese ugamije iterambere rizira guhuzagurika. Ariko nanone –nk’uko Umwami Cyilima Rujugiro yabivuze mu Nsigamigani Nyarwanda, ‘Nta byera ngo de!’: Igenabikorwa rishobora kugaragaza inenge mu gihe ridakozwe mu buryo bwa kinyamwuga. Zimwe mu nenge zishobora kwigaragaza muri iki gihe ni izikurikira:
  • Igenabikorwa rishobora kwitwazwa rikaba intambamyi ku bikorwa. Itsinda riyoboye rishobora kugwa mu mutego wo gutumbira gusa ku gusesengura no kunonosora igenabikorwa, bagahuzwa no gutegura buri kantu kose bashobora guhura nako mu ishyirwa mu bikorwa rya gahunda bateguye, bagahugira muri ibyo ku buryo kuzava hasi ngo bashyire mu bikorwa bitagerwaho, bakaguma mu igenamigambi ridashira! Mu rurimi rw’abahanga mu bukungu byitwa “Imishinga ipfubira mu igenamigambi = death by planning.” Iganamigambi ridashyizwe mu bikorwa ntacyo rivuze.
  • Igenamigambi rishobora gutera abayoboye amatsinda kwirara [Complacency]. Kugira igenabikorwa rinonosoye bishobora gutuma itsinda riyoboye ryishuka ko ‘rizi neza aho ikigo bakiganisha’, ndetse ‘banasobanukiwe neza uko ikigo kizagera aho bakiganisha’. Kwibwira gutya rero bishobora gutuma birara rwose, ntibagenzure mu buryo budatezuka intambwe zose zigize rya genabikorwa bateguye barigereranya ku bipimo birigenzura, kandi ntibabashe kumenya igihe gahunda ziri gushyirwa mu bikorwa ziteshutse ku murongo watanzwe cyangwa se izindi mpinduka zishobora gukomoka hanze kandi zikagira ingaruka ku byateganyijwe. Igenabikorwa ntabwo ari ‘itegeko ndakuka’ rishyirwaho bikaba birangiye, ahubwo ni gahunda igenda ishyirwa mu bikorwa kandi ikagendana no kuyigorora uko igenda ijya imbere.
  • Igenabikorwa rishobora gutuma hatabaho ‘kwemera inzira ya bugufi’ mu gihe ishoboka. N’ubwo hejuru twabonye ko igenabikorwa ryiza rigena n’uburyo bwo kwiyorohereza akazi, ikinyuranyo cy’ibi nacyo gishobora kubaho: Abagize itsinda riyoboye bo hagati ndetse n’ababunganiye [Mid- and lower-level managers] bashobora kwishyiramo ko bagomba gukurikiza mu kadomo amabwiriza agize igenabikorwa bahawe n’ababakuriye–n’ubwo uburambe n’ubunararibonye byabo byaba bibereka nta gushidikanya ko uko bari kubikora nta kigenda. Mu kigwi cyo kumenyesha ababakuriye intambamyi bari guhura nazo bagakomeza guhatiriza, batakaza igihe ndetse n’ubushobozi ku bikorwa babona ko nta musaruro.
  • Igenabikorwa rishobora gupfukirana ubushake/ubushobozi bwo kurema udushya. Tugarutse ku ngingo zimaze kuvugwa haruguru, abakozi n’abayoboye amatsinda bashobora kwiyumvisha ko bagomba ‘gushyira mu bikorwa mu kadomo’ amabwiriza ari mu igenabikorwa uko bayahawe. Mu gihe biyumvisha rero ko bapimirwa ku buryo ‘bashyira mu bikorwa mu kadomo’ inshingano bahawe gusa, icyo gihe, ubushake bwo guhanga udushya, kwibwiriza, ndetse no kugerageza imikorere mishya buragwingira ndetse bugasinzira. Kuko byagaragaye ko ugutsinda bikomoka ku guhimba udushya, kuvugurura imikorere ihari bigendanye na rya genabikorwa. Bityo rero, igenabikorwa ntirikwiye gupfukirana gufungura umutwe, kureba kure no kugerageza udushya mu mikorere y’ikigo, ubushabitsi cyangwa se ibikorwa by’umuntu ku giti cye.

Intego n’igenabikorwa ntabwo ari shinganwa ko biba ari impapuro ndakuka zanditse, zimanitse ku rukuta nk’icyapa. Mu bigo bito, ubushabitsi buciriritse cyangwa se ibikorwa ku giti cy’umuntu birashoboka cyane ko byaba ari n’ibitekerezo bishushanyije mu mutwe w’umuyobozi ukuriye abandi: akaba azi neza intego ashaka kugeraho, ndetse n’uburyo ateganya kuzigeraho. Ariko nanone ubushakashatsi ndetse n’ubunararibonye byagaragaje ko igenabikorwa rikozwe kinyamwuga ritanga umusaruro ufatika mu bigo n’ubushabitsi, igenabikorwa ryaba rikozwe mu buryo bw’inyandiko cyangwa se muri ubwo bunryo bundi bw’iyobora-ntekerezo.

Ariko nanone, igihe igenabikorwa ‘ryitiranyijwe n’intego’ ubwaryo aho kugira ngo ribe ‘inzira iganisha ku ntego’, iki gihe rihinduka intambamyi ndetse rikagira ingaruka mbi ku kigo / ubushabitsi,… Urugero rufatika rw’ibivugwa hano ni aho Ikigo General Motors cyahushije amahirwe yo kuba Ikigo cya mbere cy’Abanyamerika gikora imodoka cyakoze imodoka itwarwa n’amashanyarazi, kubera ko cyatsimbaraye ku igenabikorwa cyari cyarishyiriyeho mu kigwo cyo gutumbira intego rusange yacyo. Uru ruganda rwari rwarakoze imbanzirizamushinga z’imodoka za EV-1 zakorewe imbata zinubakwa mu myaka ya za 1990 ariko nyuma baza kuzisenya mu kigwi cyo kuzishyira ku isoko –kuko bitari mu iteganyabikorwa ryabo!