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IMMUNITY : UBUDAHANGARWA BW'UMUBIRI NI IKI?

IMMUNITY : UBUDAHANGARWA BW'UMUBIRI NI IKI?

Umubiri dushobora kuwugereranya n’igihugu : Ukenera kwiyubaka, urakura kandi ukeneye uburinzi buhoraho. Umubiri nta na rimwe ujya ugira amahoro. Buri munsi uhora urwana n’ibitero biturutse hanze yawo.

Ivan Nyagatare
Ivan Nyagatare

Umubiri dushobora kuwugereranya n’igihugu : Ukenera kwiyubaka, urakura kandi ukeneye uburinzi buhoraho. Umubiri nta na rimwe ujya ugira amahoro. Buri munsi uhora urwana n’ibitero biturutse hanze yawo.

Ni ukuvuga udukoko dutera indwara tuwinjiramo duturutse hanze, cyangwa se bikaba ibitero bivuye imbere muri wo. Ibi ni igihe utunyangingo tw’umubiri tuvutse ari twinshi kurenza utwo umubiri ukeneye, aribyo bita kanseri ‘cancer’. Utunyangingo tuba tugomba guhora dufite ingano ipimye mu bwinshi : ntiturenze umubare w’utwo umubiri ukeneye kandi ntitujye munsi y’umubare umubiri ukeneye. Ibi kandi biba bigomba kuba ku muvuduko ukwiye.

Buri segonda hari utunyangingo dupfa kubera ko dushaje, ariko nanone buri segonda hari utuvuka ku buryo umubiri utabamo ubusumbane. Iyo havutse twinshi kurenza utwo umubiri ukeneye, nibyo byitwa ‘cancer’. Amahirwe ni uko mu mubiri habamo ibyitwa ubudahangarwa bushinzwe guhora buri maso kugira ngo burwanye ibikorwa nk’ibingibi. Niyo mpamvu ubudahangarwa babwita abasirikare.

Ubundi ubudahangarwa busobanurwa nk’ububasha bw’umubiri bwo kurwanya ibiwushotora. Ibiwushotora bishobora kuba udukoko dutera indwara, ibinyabutabire by’uburozi cyangwa se ibintu bishobora gukomeretsa umubiri. Ubudahangarwa bw’umubiri nabwo ubwabwo ni ubwoko bw’utunyangingo tw’umubiri burimo utwo buri muntu avukana, tukitwa ‘Immunité innée. Innate immunity’, ariko tukagenda dukura, tukiyongera, tukanabona ingufu nyinshi uko umubiri ugenda ukura, tukabyara utundi tunyangingo tw’ubudahangarwa twitwa ‘Immunité acquise. Acquired immunity’. Utu tunyangingo tw’umubiri twiswe ubudahangarwa cyangwa se abasirikare b’umubiri tuba twubatswe ku buryo tumenya ikintu cyose cyinjiye mu mubiri kandi kitawusanzwemo.

Iyo hari ikintu cyinjiye mu mubiri gutututse hanze yawo, kandi kikaba gisa n’icyawubangamira cyangwa se kikawuhungabanya, utu tunyangingo tw’umubiri twiswe abasirikare cyangwa se ubudahangarwa duhita dufata icyo kintu, tukagishyira utundi tunyangingo twitwa ‘Cellules effectrices’ dushinzwe kumenya abanyamahanga binjiye mu mubiri. Utu tunyangingo dushinzwe kumenya abanyamahanga binjiye mu mubiri iyo dusanze cya kintu cyinjiye muri uwo mubiri ari ikintu cyawuteza indwara, ni ukuvuga nk’agakoko, ari nabyo bita ‘antigènes. antigens’, duhita tukimira, ubwo kikaba kivuyeho.

Muri make, ubudahangarwa bw’umubiri, ni ubwoko bw’utunyangingo dushinzwe kumira ibintu byose byinjiye mu mubiri bishobora kuwugirira nabi. Utu tunyangingo tw’ubudahangarwa kandi dushobora gukoresha uburyo bwo gusenya akanyangingo kanduye cyangwa se kamaze gufatwa n’indwara, tukagasenya katarabasha kwanduza utundi. Dukoresha utubumbe tugizwe n’ibinyabutabire by’uburozi byitwa ‘granulées toxiques’ bijya gusenya akanyangingo kanduye, kagapfa kakavaho : ni ukukaroga. Iyo agakoko gatera indwara kabashije kurenga abasirikare umuntu aba yaravukanye, hari abandi basirikare cyangwa se ubundi bwoko bw’ubudahangarwa buhita butangira akazi, bwitwa ‘immunité adaptative. Adaptative immunity’.

Ni bumwe twabonye haruguru nanone bwitwa ‘Immunité acquise. Acquired immunity’ : ni ubwoko bw’utunyangingo tw’umubiri twiga kurwanya ubwoko bumwe bw’agakoko kabangamiye umubiri. Ubudahangarwa umuntu avukana cyangwa se ‘Immunité innée’ bwo buba buzi kurwanya ikintu cyose cyinjiye mu mubiri gishobora kuwutera indwara, icyo ari cyo cyose. Mu gihe ubudahangarwa bwitwa ‘Immunité adaptative’ bwo bwiga kurwanya ubwoko bumwe bw’agakoko. Hashobora kubaho ubudahangarwa burwanya agakoko gatera ibicurane gusa, agatera malariya kakabucaho kakinjira, kakaba kanakwica. Mu yandi magambo, ni nko kugira umuzamu watojwe kurinda abajura, akaba azi gusa ko abajura aria basa n’ibikara gusa, ab’inzobe akabareka bakitambukira.

Ubudahangarwa bw’umubiri bukora bute ?
Ubudahangarwa ni ubwoko bw’utunyangingo twifashisha kamwe mu ngirangingo zigize amaraso zitwa ‘Globules blancs. White blood cells’ = insoro zera. Amaraso ya buri kinyabuzima, kimwe mu biyagize ni insoro zera. Insoro zera zo mu maraso y’inyamaswa zifite urutirigongo ‘vertébrés. Vertebrates’ zitwa ‘lymphocytes’. Izi lymphocytes rero nizo zifite ubushobozi bwo guhangana n’agakoko kinjiye mu mubiri, ariko zigahangana n’ubwoko bumwe bw’udukoko. Iyo agakoko gatera indwara kabashije guca kuri ba basirikare ba mbere buri muntu avukana, izi lymphocytes zihita ziyegeranya, maze zabasha kumenya ako gakoko kinjiye mu mubiri ako ari ko, zigatangira kwitegura kugasenya.

Dufashe urugero rw’ibicurane, agakoko gatera ibicurane kazwi ku nyito rusange ya ‘virus endocellulaire. Endocellular virus’. Ibi bishatse kuvuga ko kugira ngo gashegeshe umubiri, kagenda kakinjira muri kamwe mu tunyangingo tugize umubiri : iyi ‘endo’ isobanuye ‘imbere mu kanyangingo’. Aka gakoko k’ibicurane, iyo kinjiye mu myanya y’ubuhumekero, gafata akanyangingo kamwe muri twinshi duhari, kakakinjiramo. Kakageramo, kagahita kigabanyamo uduce twinshi cyane, duhita dukwira umubiri wose. Utunyangingo twose twinjiwemo n’aka gakoko gatera ibicurane duhita dufata isura yako, bivuze ko utwo tunyangingo natwo duhita duhinduka abanzi muri bagenzi batwo. Kubera ko tuba twafashe isura y’agakoko gatera ibicurane, biba byoroshye kuri ko kubonwa n’ubudahangarwa bw’umubiri, bugahita bukica. Uku niko umuntu ashobora kurwara ibicurane bikazikiza.

Ubudahangarwa bw’umubiri bushobora guhangana na COVID-19 ?
Uyu munsi abashakashatsi hirya no hino ku isi barimo gupima kimwe mu bice bigize amaraso y’abantu cyitwa ‘plasma’ ku bantu barwaye coronavirus bakayikira. Plasma ni igice kigize 55% by’amaraso ya buri muntu. Ibigize plasma, 90% ni amatembabuzi. Plasma niyo ifasha ibigize amaraso gutembera bigakwira umubiri wose. Ni ukuvuga ko plasama ari ubwoko bw’amatembabuzi aba mu maraso, agatuma amaraso abasha gutembera mu mubiri. Ubushakashatsi buriho uyu munsi bugamije gupima amaraso y’abantu bigeze kurwara COVID-19 ngo harebwe niba mu maraso yabo ba basirikare batari karemano barabashije kwiga kurwanya coronavirus, ku buryo agakoko kayitera kongeye kwinjira muri uwo mubiri aba basirikare bamenya kukarwanya, umuntu akaba yayirwara akayikira, rimwe na rimwe atanamenye ko yayirwaye : ibi nibyo biri gupimwa mu maraso y’abigeze kuyirwara bakayikira.

Mu Bufaransa ho, abaganga banatangiye amagerageza, aho bavoma plasma z’umuntu wakize COVID-19 bakazitera mu muntu ukiyirwaye, ngo barebe ko yakira. Ni nko kureba niba mu maraso y’uwo muntu hataravutsemo abasirikare bashobora gutera mu mubiri w’umuntu uyirwaye bakaba bamukiza. Tumwe mu dukoko tubi tubaho ni utwibasira ubudahangarwa bw’umubiri. Ibi nibyo bikorwa n’akitwa HIV, ariko gakoko gatera SIDA. Aka iyo kagiye mu mubiri w’umuntu, kabuza twa tunyangingo tw’ubudahangarwa twabonye haruguru gukora ibyo twakoraga byose, maze twamara gucika intege tukajya tureka buri gakoko kose gatera indwara kakitambukira.

Uburyo bwo kongera mu mubiri ubudahangarwa n’ubundi bugizwe n’ibintu byose abashinzwe ubuzima basaba buri wese gukora no kwitwararika kugira ngo agire ubuzima bwiza : kurya indyo yuzuye, kuruhuka bihagije, kwirinda ibisindisha n’itabi, gukora imyitozo ngororamubiri.