INDIRIRIZI (Parasites) MU BUZIMA  BW'UMUNTU

INDIRIRIZI (Parasites) MU BUZIMA BW'UMUNTU

Ivan Nyagatare

Hari abaganga benshi bamaze imyaka myinshi batekereza ko mu gifu ari ahantu hadashobora kuba ikinyabuzima na kimwe kubera ko mu gifu hameze nko mu kuzimu kuzuye amatembabuzi atwika ! Uyu munsi noneho, birazwi ko hari udukoko twashoboye gushinga ibirindiro mu gifu. Muri utwo harimo Helicobacter pylori. Aka gakoko uzakumva bakavuga. Mwene aka gakoko kibera mu nyama z’igifu. Aka kazi kubaka ingabo [shield. Bouclier] ikozwe n’ibinyabutabire, ikarinda ya matembabuzi asharira [acides] yo mu gifu.

Benshi muri twe dufite aka gakoko mu bifu byacu, kubera ko 1/4 cy’abatuye isi baragafite. Ku bantu benshi, aka gakoko karagenda kagatura mu gifu cyabo. Mu gihe gito, amatembabuzi karekura atwika igice cy’inyuma gitwikiriye inyama y’igifu. Ariko ibi ntibitinda, kuko hahita hakurikiraho imibanire myiza hagati y’ako gakoko na nyir’igifu. Gusa, 20% by’abantu bafite aka gakoko iyi mibanire myiza ntabwo itinda kubera ko nyuma batangira kubabara mu gifu. Abantu barwaye igifu, ibi barabyumva cyane. Ubudahangarwa bw’umubiri w’uwo muntu hariho ubwo butangira gushotora ako gakoko, aho kugira ngo bukice, ahubwo ibinyabutabire busohora bikamera nk’ibikobora igifu.

Hari utundi dukoko dufite ubushobozi bwo guca ku ruzitiro ruba mu gifu : Salmonelles. Aka gakoko kinjira mu mubiri wacu kanyuze mu biryo byanduye. Kaba mu nyama zidahiye cyangwa se mu bikomoka ku mata. Ibi biryo bibamo ibinure utu dukoko twitabikamo, bikaturinda gusenywa na ya matembabuzi asharira [acides] ashinzwe kurinda igifu, bityo tukanyura mu gifu dufite umutekano.

Gusa umubiri wacu nawo ufite indi ngabo izi kurwanya utu dukoko n’ubwo dufite amayeri angana gutya kugira ngo tudakorwaho na acides. Iyi ntwari yitwa indurwe [bile]. Aya ni amatembabuzi avuburwa n’umwijima. Umwijima urekura hagati ya mililitiro 800 – 1000 buri munsi z’indurwe. Uyarekura cyane cyane iyo umuntu yariye amavuta menshi, kubera ko afite ubushobozi bwo gucagagura amavuta ndetse n’ibinure. Iyo uriye ibinure rero, Salmonelles zikagenda zabyihishemo zizi ngo zirarokotse, bile ihita icagagura bya binure [saponification] igasangamo utwo dukoko, ikatwica ako kanya. Ariko ibi nanone ntabwo bibuza tumwe muri two kurokoka. Uturokotse duhita tugera mu rura rw’amata rusanzwe ari ikigega cyuzuye ibyo kurya twariye. Aha haba harimo uruvunganzoka rw’udukoko [microbes] tw’inshuti z’umubiri [parasites saprophytes] ndetse n’utundi tw’abanzi b’umubiri [parasites pathogènes], zitera indwara.

Gusa, hano agakoko kabasha kuhashinga imizi kagomba kuba gafite ubushobozi bw’igitangaza : Kagomba kuba gafite ubushobozi bwo guhagarara kagashikama, ntigatembanwe n’ibyo twariye byamaze guhinduka urusukume ; ndetse na ya matembabuzi asharira [acides] ashinzwe kugira uruhare mu igogora adahagarika kwisuka muri ibyo biryo. Kaba kagomba gukora ku buryo kihanganira ubu busharire bukomeye. Agakoko kagomba kurokoka izi nzitizi, kagomba kuba gafite intwaro yihariye.

Hari kamwe muri izo ndiririzi gafite ububasha bwo kurokoka ibingibi. Iyi ni inzoka y’igifwana [Amibe. Vers solitaire. Taenia : Entamoeba hystolytica]. Taenia ni inzoka mbi cyane mu nzoka zo mu nda zose zibasira inyamabere. Ifite ubushobozi bwo kwihanganira ibyo umubiri wakora byose ugambiriye kuyisenya no kuyirimbura igihe cyose yageze mu nda y’umuntu. Hari ubwoko bwa Taenia iba ishobora gupime metero 4 z’uburebure. Byakumvikana nk’ibitangaje, ariko nibyo : hari abantu bafite mu nda zabo inzoka za Taenia zireshya na metero 4 z’uburebure. Hari n’izishobora kurenza metero 9 z’uburebure !

Hari ishobora kukujya mu nda, igafunga amara [obstruction intestinale]. Hari kandi ishobora kukujya mu nda, ikarya ibiryo byose wohereza mu nda, bigatuma umuntu uyifite mu nda ye arwara indwara z’imirire mibi ! inzoka ikuri mu nda ikagucura ! Abanyarwanda bayita [ikiryi. Indiririzi].

Ubundi inzoka zo mu nda zororoka binyuze mu gutera amagi, kenshi asohokana n’umwanda twituma, nyir’ukurwara izo nzoka ntanamenye ibyabaye. Ariko hari udukoko tumwe na tumwe twakwita ‘utugome’ cyane dukora amabi mu nzira iyo turi gusohoka. Muri utu, harimo akitwa Clostridium. Aka karagenda kakihisha mu masangano y’inzira zose zitwara ibyo kurya iyo byamaze kugera mu nda, kagatangira kagatangira buri biryo byose bikanyuraho, kakabinyunyuzamo intungamubiri ! Clostridium irya inyama zose ziba ziri mu byo kurya turya, ariko ishobora no kurya bimwe mu bice bigize amara !

Hari abantu bazakubwira ngo muganga yababwiye ko bafite ubwandu [infection] mu mara. Nibyo by’ibi. Ibi birica ! Gusa, umubiri wacu wabashije kwiremamo amayeri menshi yo kwirwanaho no guhangana na bene izi ndiririzi : Mu rwego rwo kurwanya aka gakoko, buri cyumweru cyangwa se 2, umubiri wacu uvugurura utunyangingo tugize amara yacu. Utu tunyangingo dushaje ni imboga zishyushye kuri utu dukoko twa Clostridium.

Udukoko twose tuba twashoboye kwihangana tukagera ahangaha, urugendo rwatwo ruba rusa n’urugana ku musozo : Nyuma yo gukora urugendo rwa metero 6 mu rura rw’amata, noneho duhita tugera [tugwa] ahashashe : urura runini.

Mu rura runini, niho isano dufitanye n’udukoko igaragarira mu by’ukuri : Imyitwarire y’udukoko cyangwa se mikorobi ziba mu rura runini niyo abashakashatsi baheraho bavuga ko udukoko tumwe na tumwe dufitiye abantu akamaro ku rwego rumwe n’akamaro ibindi bice by’umubiri bidufitiye. Pr Graham Rook –Ni impuguke mu birebana n’ubudahangarwa bw’umubiri w’umuntu [Human Immunology] : « Dufite nibura 1 ½ kg cy’udukoko mu mara yacu. Utwo dukoko dufite akamaro [kayingayinga] ako ibihaha bidufitiye, impyiko cyangwa umwijima. Udukoko tugira uruhare mu igogorwa ry’ibiryo, kandi tugafasha cyane mu gukura intungamubiri [nutrients] mu byo twariye, ndetse tugafasha mu gukura mu mubiri ibinyabutabire by’uburozi [toxines]. Udukoko natwo, ni kimwe mu bigize imiterere y’umubiri wacu. Natwe ubwacu turi bimwe mu bigize isi y’udukoko ».

Reka turebere hamwe uburyo utu dukoko turi mu mibiri yacu dufite akamaro [kayingayinga] ak’ibihaha, impyiko cyangwa umwijima : Ibyo turya bikora impinduka zishingiye ku buzima bwacu. Ariko amamiliyaridi y’udukoko tuba mu mara yacu natwo dufite umumaro wenda kungana no kurya neza neza. Hari abantu barwara mu nda bitewe n’uko hari ubwoko bw’udukoko [microbes] badafite mu nda zabo. Abaganga mu kubavura, bakabatera mikorobi cyangwa se bakabaha ibinini bikozwe muri mikorobi runaka.

Kurebesha amaso urura runini rw’umuntu ntabwo [turi benshi] twabikunda. Ntabwo rusa neza, ntabwo ari ibintu byiza byo kureba, ariko urura runini ni igihugu ku mamiliyaridi y’udukoko. Urura runini ruri mu byiciro bya nyuma umwanda ukomoka ku byo kurya twariye unyuramo iyo uri hafi gusohoka.

Mu kugerageza gusobanukirwa igogorwa ry’ibiryo, reka twifashishe urugero : Wigeze ukoresha akayunguruzo, uyungurura ibyo ari byo byose ? Mu byo uyungurura, hari igihe bimwe mu byo udashaka bihita mu kayunguruzo - kubera ko ari bito cyane ugereranyije n’imyenge yako. Niba urimo nko kuyungurura ifu runaka, mu ifu yawe hakagira ibiheri bigwamo, no mu igogorwa ry’ibiryo ni uko bigenda : Hari udupande duto cyane tw’ibyo kurya bicika urwungano ngogozi mu gice cy’igifu n’amara mato, bigatambuka bikagera mu rura runini bitagogowe [non assimilated nutrients]. Twibukiranye ko mu rura runini haba harimo amamiliyaridi menshi y’udukoko. Utu rero nitwo duhita tugogora bya biryo byageze hano bitagogowe. Utu dukoko duhita dufata bya biryo bitagogowe, tukabicagagura cyane, tukabisohora hanze y’umubiri ariko bigasohoka bitameze nka wa mwanda twohereza mu musarani, ahubwo byo bisohoka ari umwanda mu isura y’umwuka –ibi bisobanuye ko igogora rikozwe n’udukoko tuba mu rura runini niryo rirema ibyitwa ‘gusura’. Iki ni igikorwa ubusanzwe gitera ipfunwe ku buryo atari buri wese wishimira kumva cyangwa kubona, ariko nicyo kiguzi cyo gutanga kugira ngo umubiri wacu usohore imyanda ya nyuma ivuye mu igogora rya 2 rikorwa n’udukoko tuba mu nda zacu. Iki ni igikorwa kigira akamaro ku mpande zombi : ku dukoko n’abantu baducumbikiye mu nda zabo.

Nk’uko bigenda kuri za stades no mu byumba by’imyidagaduro, aho abantu baterana inkokora buri wese arwanira kuza kwicara ahantu heza, no mu nda yacu niko biba bimeze ! Udukoko twiza dufite

umumaro ku mubiri wacu twororoka vuba cyane ku muvuduko munini cyane kugira ngo dukwire ahantu hose hari umwanya mu nda, noneho udutera indwara tuze kubura aho tujya. Mu rwego rwo kurinda umutekano w’aho twamaze gufata, udukoko tw’inshuti z’umubiri –urugero utwitwa lactobacilles tuvubura amatembabuzi –acide ibuza udukoko dutera indwara kororoka. Ku rundi ruhande ariko, udukoko dutera indwara natwo duhita tuvubura ibindi binyabutabire by’uburozi, ariko ibingibi nibyo bitugambanira –nibyo bitamaza udukoko twabisohoye. Uku kohererezanya ibinyabutabire byagereranywa no kurasanaho mu mirwano ikaze mu nda yacu.

Iyo udukoko turinda umubiri tubonye ko utu dukoko dutera indwara twamaze kwinjira mu mubiri ari twinshi cyane, duhita twoherereza amakuru utunyangingo tw’ubudahangarwa tw’umubiri, natwo tugahita twiroha muri iyo ntambara, ngo turebe ko amahoro yagaruka. Ariko iyo udukoko dutera indwara ari twinshi cyane mu mubare mu mubiri, utunyangingo tw’ubudahangarwa bw’umubiri wacu duhita dufata icyemezo cyo gusohora buri gakoko kose kari mu mubiri, hatarebwe akeza cyangwa se akabi : buri kose kaba kagomba gusohoka. Ibi nibibaho, nicyo gihe uzabona umuntu atangiye kuruka no guhitwa –hahandi tuvuga ko kanaka yarwaye inzoka.

Photo by Dylann Hendricks | 딜란 on Unsplash

Ibi ariko bigira ingaruka zikomeye kubera ko udukoko twose ntabwo twasohoka. Byanze bikunze hari udutera indwara dusigara mu nda, kandi noneho tuba twanamaze kubona umwanya uhagije ! Iki gihe iyo ubimenye wajya muri farumasi ukagura ibinini bitera utundi dukoko twiza kandi twinshi mu mubiri wawe. Iki gihe yoghourt, ikivuguto cyangwa se ibindi biribwa n’ibinyobwa birimo udukoko tukiri tuzima biba ari byiza cyane mu gukemura iki kibazo. Amata y’inshushyu kuyabika ahantu runaka agahinduka ikivuguto biba byakozwe n’udukoko dushyira acides muri ayo mata. Ni nako bigenda ku rwagwa no ku zindi mbuto zose n’ibindi bintu byose bibora cyangwa se bishya [fermentation]. Ibi biribwa nibyo byitwa ‘probiotiques’.

Probiotiques ni ibiribwa cyangwa se ibinyobwa birimo udukoko twiza abantu barya cyangwa se banywa kugira ngo bisubize udukoko twiza mu mibiri yabo [micro organismes saprophytes].

Urwego rushinzwe ubushakashatsi ku by’isanzure mu Burusiya nirwo rwabanje gukora ubushakashatsi kuri mwene ibi bikorwa : Rimwe hari abashakashatsi mu by’isanzure b’Abarusiya bari bagiye kujya mu isanzure. Bamwe muri bo ariko bari bafite ibibazo by’igogora. Maze muganga wabo abakorera yoghourt, ayishyiramo udukoko [saprophytes] yari yakuye muri bagenzi babo batari bafite ikibazo na kimwe mu igogora. Ibi byatumye bose bajya mu isanzure mu nda zabo hakora kimwe.

Amamiliyaridi y’udukoko tuzima tugenda atuye mu rura runini rwacu. Buri munsi tujya mu bwiherero tugasohora umwanda, kandi 1/2 cyawo kiba ari udukoko tuzima, twavuye mu rura runini. Niba hari ikintu ikigo cya Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika gishinzwe iby’isanzure kitigeze cyifuza mu byogajuru byacyo, ni indobo n’amajerekani yuzuye umwanda wo mu musarani witumwe n’abashakashatsi bari mu bushakashatsi mu isanzure. Umwanda wuzuye udukoko tuzima. Iyi niyo mpamvu abaganga bashinzwe kwita ku buzima bw’abashakashatsi bajya mu isanzure bakoze ubwoko bw’ibiryo bagaburira aba bashakashatsi, bikajya mu nda bikica udukoko twose two mu mara yabo ! Professeur Michael Hill –ni umuhanga mu by’ibinyabuzima : « Igihe Abanyamerika bari bagiye kohereza umuntu ku kwezi, bashatse igisubizo ku bibazo by’udukoko tuba mu mwanda witumwe n’abashakashatsi bagombaga kujya mu isanzure. Bakoze ubwoko bw’ibiryo bitagira ibisigazwa mu mubiri. Igitekerezo cyari ukwicisha inzara udukoko twose two mu mara. Abashakashatsi baryaga ibi biryo, bashoboraga kumara ibyumweru biri hagati ya 3-4 batagiye ku musarani. Gusa uyu mushinga ntabwo wigeze ubaho, ariko iyo bawushyira mu bikorwa, bari kujya mu kwezi bakagaruka ntawe ukeneye kujya ku bwiherero ».

Tubaye tudafite udukoko tuzima mu mara yacu, ubuzima bwacu ntabwo bwakongera kuba bumeze nk’uko bumeze uyu munsi. Gusa nanone, utu dukoko turamutse twisanzuye tukajya mu bice bimwe na bimwe by’umubiri wacu, bigira ingaruka zikomeye cyane [septicémie,…].

  • Umubiri w’umuntu mukuru utwikiriwe n’uruhu rupima nibura metero kare 2 z’ubuso [2 sqm]. Uru ruhu nirwo ruha udukoko amahitamo y’ahantu twatura hatubereye bitewe n’ingano y’ubushyuhe dushaka. Urugero, nk’amaguru yacu ntabwo abonekaho amatembabuzi menshi nk’ibyuya ndetse n’ibindi. Bivuze ko ku dukoko, amaguru y’umuntu ni ubutayu. Umubiri w’umuntu ubaye ari isi, ku maguru haba ari mu butayu bwa Sahara.
  • Ku ruhu rw’umuntu, kuri buri sentimetero kare 1 [1 sqcm] haba hari udukoko ibihumbi 11 ! Ubwo niba ushaka kumenya ingano y’udukoko ukura [usibye ko ubwo nyine muba muduhererekanya] ku kiganza cy’umuntu usuhuje [atakarabye amazi n’isabune], urabara ibihumbi 11 ukube na sentimetero kare ziri ku kiganza cy’umuntu mukuru.
  • Utwinshi mu dukoko two ku mubiri w’umuntu tuba mu musatsi wo ku mutwe, n’ahandi hari ubwoya bwinshi [ahakikije imyanya y’ibanga]. Hano ho nibura, kuri buri sentimetero kare 1 [1 sqcm] haba hari udukoko miliyoni 1 !
  • Kubera ko isura yacu ihoramo amatembabuzi y’amavuta, birasa n’aho ari paradizo ku dukoko two ku mubiri w’umuntu. Udukoko two mu bwoko bw’utwitwa Clostridium hafi buri gihe tuba turi mu twiyometse ku ruhu rw’umuntu. Rimwe na rimwe, iyo ubushyuhe bumeze neza, tuba dushobora guhinduka nk’inyamaswa z’indyanyama.
  • Uruhu rwacu inshuro nyinshi rurivugurura, rugasimbuza bimwe mu birugize hagamijwe kwirinda utwo dukoko tuba turwuzuyeho. Buri gihe iyo woze, hari utunyangingo twapfuye tugenda tuva ku ruhu rwawe, tukamanukana n’amazi, tukamanukana na tumwe mu dukoko – bivuze ko mu bwogero bw’abantu kenshi haba habyiganiramo uruvunganzoka rw’udukoko twavuye ku ruhu rwabo.
  • Udukoko dutera indwara turamutse twinjiye mu mubiri wawe, tunyuze mu ruhu, dushobora guteza ibibazo bifite ingaruka zihanganirwa bigoranye. Mu butaka habamo udukoko twitwa Enterobacter. Utu dukoko iyo tukwinjiye mu birenge bishobora kurangira babiciye : turagenda tukica utunyangingo tugize ibirenge, bikagenda bimeze nk’ibyumye [necrosis].
  • Umubiri wacu uteye uko uteye uyu munsi hagamijwe kurwanya amoko atandukanye y’udukoko dushobora kuwinjiramo. Urugero nk’ubu dufite ubwoya mu mazuru no mu matwi bufite inshingano yo guhagarika cyangwa se kugabanya udukoko dushobora kwinjira mu mubiri tunyuze muri izo nzira. Mu bihaha naho umubiri uhafite abazamu bitwa macrophages batangira udukoko twose twinjira mu mubiri tunyuze mu mwuka duhumeka. Macrophages ni utunyangingo [cells. Cellules] dushinzwe kurya [phagocytose] udukoko utwo ari two twose tugerageza kwinjira mu bihaha. Mu nzira z’ubuhumekero zituruka mu mazuru zikagera mu bihaha, hagiye harimo ubwoya bwinshi [cils] ariko butagaragara. Ubu bwoya bugenda bufata tumwe mu dukoko turimo kujyanwa n’umwuka bukadusubiza mu kanwa. Iyo tugeze mu kanwa, nyir’akanwa aba ashobora kutwohereza muri acide yo mu gifu  tunyuze mu kumira amacandwe, cyangwa se tugasohoka hanze y’umubiri binyuze mu gukorora, gucira amacandwe, kwitsamura, kwimyira cyangwa se igikororwa.

Muri buri segonda rigize ubuzima bwacu, iyi mitego yose tubonye haruguru igenda ibuza udukoko kwiroha no kugera mu bice by’umubiri wacu, aho udukoko dushobora kugera tugateza ibibazo. Gusa ibi ntabwo bikuraho ko utu dukoko tuba duhawe ikaze mu bice bimwe na bimwe by’umubiri. Udukoko –microbes zaba nziza cyangwa se mbi zinjira mu mubiri w’umuntu iyo arimo kuvuka ataranagera ku isi. Iyo amaze gupfa, ubudahangarwa bw’umubiri we burahagarara. Umubiri ugahagarika gukora. Ibyatungaga twa dukoko bikagenda bigabanuka bikagera aho bigashira. Nyuma y’igihe runaka, uruhu narwo ruruma, udukoko twari turi muri uwo mubiri tugatangira kwicwa n’inzara ndetse twinshi tugapfa, utundi tukabona ibindi binyabuzima tujyaho. Ku yindi nshuro nanone, umuntu aba yongeye kwisanga nta gakoko na kamwe kamurimo [nk’uko byahoze igihe yari ataragera ku isi] : hano nta dukoko tumusigaraho, ariko nanone nta n’ubuzima buba bukimurimo.