Tariki ya 10 Ukwakira ni umunsi wahariwe kuzirikana ku ndwara zo mu mutwe kw'isi.

Ishami rya ONU ryita ku buzima rirasaba za guverinoma kongera imirimo zikorera abantu bafite ibibazo byo mu mutwe n'abagoswe n'ibiyobyabwenge. Raporo yatangajwe na ONU yerekana ko ibihugu byinshi byo kw'isi bikoresha amafaranga make cyane mu kwita ku bafite ibibazo by'indwara zo mu mutwe.

Ishami rya ONU ryita ku buzima OMS, ryakoze ubushakashatsi ku ndwara zo mu mutwe uyu mwaka, mu bihugu 184 kw’isi. Ryasanze umuntu 1 kuri 4 ashobora kuzakenera kwitabwaho kubera ibibazo byo mu mutwe mu buzima bwe.  Nyamara, amadolari 3 gusa buri mwaka ni yo akoreshwa ku bibazo by’indwara zo mu mutwe kuri buri muntu.

Mu bihugu bikennye, amafaranga angana hafi na 1/4 cy’idolari ni yo akoreshwa ku muntu umwe.

Uretse amafaranga make akoreshwa ku buzima bwo mu mutwe, umuyobozi ushinzwe gukurikirana indwara zo mu mutwe n’ibiyobyabwenge muri OMS avuga ko ibihugu bikennye n’ibigitangira gutera imbere bifite impuguke nke cyane zazobereye mu by’indwara zo mutwe.

Uwo muyobozi atanga urugero rwa bimwe mu bihugu byo muri Afrika bituwe n’abaturage miliyoni 9 bifite gusa umudogiteri 1 wazobereye mu by’indwara zo mu mutwe. Muri Aziya ho ngo hari ibihugu bituwe n’abaturage bagera kuri miliyoni 29 bifite abaganga nk’abo 2 gusa!

Ishami rya ONU ryita ku buzima ritangaza ko abenshi mu batuye isi batavurwa indwara zo mu mutwe. Ubushakashatsi bwakozwe na ONU bwerekana ko abantu bafite indwara zo mu mutwe n’imiryango yabo bahohoterwa mu burenganzira bwabo, banenwa kandi bakavangurwa. Ibyo bibazo byo kwigizwayo bituma abantu bafite ibibazo byo mu mutwe bacika intege ntibagerageze gushaka uwabafasha.

Ikigo cy’Igihugu gishinzwe ubuzima(RBC) hamwe n’imiryango ifatanya na cyo, baravuga ko inkomoko y’indwara zo mu mutwe ahanini ngo ari amakimbirane abera mu miryango. Ibi babitangaje mu imurikabikorwa ry’Ibitaro bishinzwe ubuvuzi bw’indwara zo mu mutwe, CARAES-Ndera, ryabereye mu kigo cyitwa Icyizere ku Kicukiro ku wa gatanu tariki 18 Ukwakira 2019.

Minisiteri y’Ubuzima (MINISANTE) igaragaza ko mu rubyiruko rufite hagati y’imyaka 14-18, abafite ibimenyetso by’uburwayi bwo mutwe bagera ku 10%, kandi ko muri rusange Abanyarwanda basaga 11% babana n’agahinda gakabije.

Iyo bigeze ku barokotse Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi, ho ngo ababana n’agahinda gakabije bagera kuri 32% nk’uko umukozi wa RBC ushinzwe gukurikirana ubuzima bwo mu mutwe, Claire Nancy Misago yakomeje abisobanura.

Photo by Jude Beck on Unsplash

Amakuru ku ndwara zo mu mutwe.

Mbese uramutse wisuzumishije bakagusangana indwara yo mu mutwe cyangwa bakayisangana umuntu wawe, wakumva umeze ute?

Igishimishije ni uko indwara zo mu mutwe zishobora kuvurwa.

“Indwara zo mu mutwe zibasira abantu babarirwa muri za miriyoni amagana hirya no hino ku isi, kandi zigira ingaruka no kuri bene wabo n’incuti zabo. Umuntu 1 kuri 4 aba azarwara indwara yo mu mutwe.

Ku isi hose, indwara yo kwiheba ni yo ya mbere ifata abantu benshi kurusha izindi ndwara zo mu mutwe.

Naho indwara bakunze kwita ibisazi n’indi ituma ibyiyumvo bihindagurika, ni zo zikaze kandi ni zo zizahaza abantu kurusha izindi.  N’ubwo abantu benshi barwaye indwara zo mu mutwe muri rusange abantu barazihisha, abazirwaye bakirengagizwa kandi bagahabwa akato."

Dukurikije raporo y’iryo shami, abantu benshi bafite uburwayi bwo mu mutwe banga kwivuza kuko baba batinya guhabwa akato.  Ikigo cyo muri Amerika cyita ku barwayi bo mu mutwe cyavuze ko indwara nyinshi zo mu mutwe zishobora kuvurwa.

Cyakomeje kivuga ko nubwo bimeze bityo, muri icyo gihugu abantu bakuru bagera hafi kuri 60% n’abakiri bato bafite hagati y’imyaka 8 na 15 bagera kuri 50% barwaye indwara zo mu mutwe, batigeze bivuza mu mwaka ushize.

Bimwe mu bimenyetso by’indwarazo mu mutwe.

Impuguke zivuga ko umuntu aba arwaye mu mutwe iyo adashobora kugenzura ibitekerezo bye, ibyiyumvo bye n’imyifatire ye.

Akenshi iyo ndwara ituma uyirwaye adashyikirana neza n’abandi kandi ntashobore gusohoza inshingano ze za buri munsi. Ariko, « Iyo umuntu arwaye indwara yo mu mutwe, ntibiba bisobanura ko ari ikigwari cyangwa ko afite imico mibi »

Igihe iyo ndwara imara n’ubukana bwayo bigenda bitandukana bitewe n’umuntu, imimerere arimo n’ubwoko bw’indwara arwaye. Iyo ndwara ishobora kwibasira abantu bose ititaye ku myaka, umuco, igitsina, ubwoko, idini, amashuri cyangwa urwego rw’imibereho.  Iyo abantu bavuwe uko bikwiriye bashobora gukira, bagakora kandi bakagira imibereho myiza.

Uko indwara zo mu mutwe zivurwa.

Abaganga b’inzobere mu kuvura indwara zo mu mutwe bashobora kuvura inyinshi muri zo kandi zigakira.  Ikintu cya mbere cy’ingenzi ni ukubona umuganga w’inararibonye ushobora gusuzuma neza izo ndwara.

Icyakora abarwayi basuzumwa neza gusa mu gihe bemeye kuvurwa uko bikwiriye. Ibyo bibasaba kwikuramo ubwoba, bakabwira abandi ibirebana n’uburwayi bwabo. Bimwe mu bintu byafasha abo barwayi, harimo kuganira n’abaganga b’inararibonye mu kuvura izo ndwara.

Abo baganga bashobora kubafasha gusobanukirwa uburwayi bwabo, gukemura ibibazo bahura na byo buri munsi no kubashishikariza gufata imiti uko bikwiriye kugeza igihe irangiriye. Mu gihe umurwayi akurikiranwa n’abaganga, umwe mu bagize umuryango cyangwa incuti ashobora kubigiramo uruhare rw’ingenzi amuhumuriza kandi akamuba hafi[2].

Abantu benshi bashoboye guhangana n’indwara zo mu mutwe nyuma yo gusobanukirwa neza ibyazo no gukurikiza amabwiriza bahawe n’abaganga b’inzobere.  

Umwe mu barwaza twaganiriye tumusanze mu bitaro bya CARAES Ndera, Ishami rya Kabutare yagize ati “mbere y’uko abaganga basuzuma umugore wanjye bakamusangana indwara yo mu mutwe, nta cyo twari tuzi kuri izo ndwara. Icyakora twitoje gukemura buri kibazo uko kije no kwakira ibitubayeho. Uko iminsi yagiye ihita, abaganga b’inzobere kandi bizewe, incuti ndetse n’abavandimwe bagiye batwitaho.

Naho umurwayi we, mu kwemeranya na we, yagize ati “igihe bansuzumaga bakansangana indwara yo mu mutwe, mu mizo ya mbere numvise ari nk’aho bampaye igihano cyo gufungwa. Nubwo hari ibyo tudashobora gukora bitewe n’ubwo burwayi, naje kubona ko umuntu ashobora guhangana n’ikibazo gisa n’aho kimurenze kandi akagitsinda. Gukurikiza amabwiriza y’abaganga b’inzobere, gusabana n’abandi bantu no kudahangayika, byamfashije guhangana n’ubwo burwayi.”

Kwiyitaho mu buryo bw’imyemerere nabyo ni iby’ingenzi

Bibiliya ntigaragaza ko gusenga no kwiga Ijambo ry’Imana bikiza indwara. Icyakora, hirya no hino ku isi hari imiryango myinshi yabonye ihumure n’imbaraga bitewe no kwizera kwabo.

Nubwo Ibitabo by’Ijambo ry’Imana (Bibiliya, Korowani, n’ibindi) atari ibitabo by’ubuvuzi, bitanga inama z’ingirakamaro zishobora kudufasha guhangana n’imibabaro n’imihangayiko itandukanye.

Mbese abarwaye izo ndwara biyumva bate?

“Hari igihe ubwoba butuma numva ntashobora gukora imirimo runaka, kandi hari iminsi mba numva gusoma byananiye. Nanone hari ubwo indwara yo kwiheba ituma numva ntashaka kubonana n’abantu, yewe n’incuti zanjye magara. Hari abantu bagerageza kumpumuriza bambwira ko mu gihe gito nzaba merewe neza, cyangwa ko nta kibazo gikomeye mfite, ahubwo ko ari ibyo nishyiramo. Hari n’abangira inama yo kwibanda ku byiza gusa. Ariko muri ibyo byose nta cyo ntagerageje. Nubwo abambwira ibyo byose baba banyifuriza ibyiza, nta kindi bimarira uretse gutuma ndushaho kumva ko ntakwiriye, nkicira urubanza kandi nkumva ko nta cyo nshoboye.” –Umubyeyi ubana n’uburwayi bwo mu mutwe.

Zimwe mu nama zafasha mu guhangana n’izo indwara.

1. Gukurikiza amabwiriza y’abaganga b’inzobere mu by’indwara zo mu mutwe.

2.     Gukomeza kugira gahunda ihamye ya buri munsi kandi ishyize mu gaciro.

3.     Gukora imirimo itandukanye no kwihatira kuruhuka bihagije.

4.     Gufata akanya ko kwirangaza buri munsi.

5.     Kurya indyo yuzuye.

6.     Kugabanya inzoga kandi no kwirinda kunywa imiti utandikiwe na muganga.

7.     Kwirinda kwigunga: Jya umarana igihe n’abantu b’inkoramutima n’abandi bakwitaho, kandi ugerageze kwiyitaho mu buryo bw’iyobokamana.


[1]Icyegeranyo cya OMS-Ishami ry’Umuryango w’Abibumbye ryita ku buzima.

[2] Reba inyandiko: “Ubuzima.  Uburwayi bwo mu mutwe: Kwiyakira no gufasha uwawe ubana nabwo”. “Health. Mental health: Coping with chronic sadness”.  “Psychology.mental health: hereditary mental illness”