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KUREBA FILIMI : ESE BIRAKENEWE?

KUREBA FILIMI : ESE BIRAKENEWE?

Muri make, ikintu cyose kigira uruhande rwiza iyo gikoreshejwe mu buryo bukwiriye. Filimi/videwo nazo zifite uruhande rwiza, ariko mu gihe uzikoresha ari mu murongo ‘ukwiriye’.

Ivan Nyagatare
Ivan Nyagatare

Kureba filimi: igikorwa cy’ingirakamaro mu buzima bwa buri munsi, ariko kigomba kwitonderwa.

Umubiri. Amagara mazima. Ubuzima buzira umuze. Ubuzima ni impano karemano ihabwa buri muntu kuva agisamwa, ku buntu. Usibye abanyamahirwe make, bake ; abandi tuvuka dufite ubuzima buzira umuze. Ibi ahanini tubikesha utunyangingo tuzira inenge turagwa n’abo dukesha ubuzima : abakurambere bacu. Utu nabo bakadukesha kuba baraturazwe uko ibiragano bisimburana, ariko kandi no kuba baragiye bitwararika amategeko karemano agenga ubuzima ndetse no kubahiriza imigirire, imyitwarire ndetse na za kirazira uko imico itandukanye. Inshingano nyamukuru duhabwa no kubaho ni ukubungabunga ubuzima, ni ugusugasira amagara kugira ngo natwe tuzabashe guhereza abadukomokaho ubuzima buzira umuze. Uko dukomeza kwigira ejuru, duhabwa kandi dutozwa byose bikenewe kugira ngo iyo nshingano tuyuzuze : indyo yuzuye, imyitozo ngororamubiri n’indi migirire n’imyitwarire yubaka umuntu wuzuye.

Kureba filimi ni imwe mu migirire igira uruhare mu kuruhura ubwonko n’umubiri, ariko nanone ku rugero rukwiriye.

Ku bavutse/babyirutse mu myaka ya za 70, 80, 90,…muri ibi bihugu byitwa mu byegerenyo bimwe na bimwe ‘ibikiri mu nzira y’amajyambere’ (Afurika yo munsi ya Sahara, ibice bimwe bya Aziya na Amerika y’amajyepfo), ijambo filimi cyangwa videwo uwavuga ko ijanisha rinini bahuraga naryo mu bitabo byo mu ishuri cyangwa se ibitabo mbarankuru ntiyaba atandukiriye ukuri kwishingikirije ibihe n’amateka.

Ibi biragendana kandi n’amateka y’iterambere ry’ikoranabuhanga : radiyo, televiziyo, mudasobwa, imirongo ya murandasi ; muri make uburyo bwo gukora, kubika, guhindura cyangwa se guhererekanya ubutumwa bushingiye ku nyandiko, ijwi cyangwa se ishusho. Aha, turakomoza ku bikoresho tutabashije kubonera inyito mu rurimi inyandiko iteguwemo : cassettes z’amajwi n’amashusho, CD, DVD, recorders, players, displayers, telefoni ngendanwa,…

Mu myaka twavuze haruguru, kugira ngo umuntu ku giti cye abashe gutunga kimwe mu bikoresho byavuzwe haruguru, agikoresha nk’umutungo bwite, ntabwo byari ‘umuryango ufunguriwe buri wese’ !

Uko iminsi igenda yicuma, niko ikoranabuhanga rigenda ‘ryegereza isi buri wese’, bitewe n’amikoro afite. Bya bikoresho twabonye ko bitashobokaga kuba runaka yabitunga mu mutungo we –atari uko abuze ubushobozi, ubu ushobora kubisanga byose mu cyumba kimwe, ndetse igitangaje ugasanga ari n’icyumba cyagenewe kuruhukiramo !

Ibikoresho by’ikoranabuhanga aho tuba, muri gahunda zitandukanye.

Uko iminsi igenda yicuma, niko rubanda barushaho gushaka (i) ibibafasha kuruhuka, (ii) kumenya ibigezweho, (iii) kwidagadura no (iv) kwiga.

Filimi na videwo ni bimwe mu bibibafashamo, kuko zigabanya umunaniro w’ubwonko –bityo n’umubiri ukaruhukiramo ; zikagira uruhare ku mubano w’uzireba n’abo abana nabo, ndetse zikaba zanamwunganira mu kuzuza inshingano runaka.

Inyandiko yasohotse mu kinyamakuru The Guardian mu mwaka wa 2016, yavugaga ko ubushakashatsi bwagaragaje ko ‘imyitwarire ya nyir’ukuzireba ari yo imubashisha kuzibyaza umusaruro cyangwa se kwinjira mu mu gihombo : iyo zitarebwe kuri gahunda ngo binakorwe mu gihe gikwiye kandi kitarengereye igikwiriye, bigira ingaruka mbi zirimo izihita zigaragara mu buzima bwa buri munsi (ku mubiri : umubyibuho ukabije, diyabete,,…) cyangwa se izigenda zototera nyirazo gahoro gahoro (uburwayi bwo mu mutwe : agahinda gakabije no kwigunga,…)’.

Mu binyacumi turimo, usanga mu ngo nyinshi ‘zifashije’, iyo umwana avuye ku ishuri yakirizwa televiziyo no kureba filimi, ndetse no mu mpera z’icyumweru bikaba bityo ! byagera mu kiruhuko byo, bikaba nk’akazi ka buri munsi !

Uretse n’abana, hari n’abakuru usanga bava ku kazi cyangwa se mu zindi nshingano z’ubuzima umutima uri ku kureba amashusho ! Birumvikana ko iyo badafite ikibahuza hanze noneho, bikaba ukundi.

Mu gihe twateguraga iyi nkuru twagize umwanya wo kuganira n’inzobere mu buvuzi bw’indwara zishingiye ku mitekerereze n’imyitwarire, Kalimba Mateso. Kuri ino ngingo yatubwiye ko ‘muri rusange, kureba filimi ni ingirakamaro cyane, kuko usibye kwidagadura, zinagira byinshi zigisha. Ibi ariko ngo bizagerwaho bitewe no kuzireba kuri gahunda : niba ari umwana, umubyeyi akamugenera igihe gikwiye cyo kuzireba ; yaba ari umuntu mukuru, nawe akiyobora mu nyurabwenge, agena igihe nyacyo cyo kuzireba’.

Hariho ubundi bushakashatsi bwashyizwe ahagaragara mu mwaka wa 2016 bwanzuye ko ‘umwana ufite amezi 18 kumanura adakwiye kwegerezwa ibikoresho by’ikoranabuhanga ry’amashusho : TV, mudasobwa, telefoni,…naho uw’imyaka 2-5 akaba yabyerekwa isaha 1 ku munsi. Ufite imyaka 6 kuzamura akwiriye gukoresha ibyo bikoresho mu masaha ashobora gusaguka ku gihe cy’imirimo ye ya buri munsi : amasaha amara ku ishuri, gukora imikoro yatahanye, gukora imyitozo ngororamubiri nibura isaha 1, kuganira n’abo abana nabo ndetse no gusinzira amasaha hagati ya 8-12’.

Kuri ino ngingo, birumvikana ko niba nta mwanya usaguka muri gahunda y’umunsi, ntacyo byishe gusimbuka igihe runaka adahuye n’ibi bikoresho by’ikoranabuhanga.

Kalimba yakomeje asobanura ko ‘iyo utangiye gutekereza ko igihe cyose uri mu biro nta wundi murimo uhugiyeho uzajya ureba filimi/videwo cyangwa se umwana agahugira muri ibyo mu gihe adafite ikimuhugije ; uyu niwo muzi wo kototerwa no kuba imbata y’ibyo, maze na za ngaruka mbi zibikomokaho ntizitinde kwigaragaza’.

Gutwarwa na filimi/videwo ntibibura kugira ingaruka.

Muri bwa bushakashatsi twakomojeho haruguru ndetse n’ikiganiro twagiranye na Kalimba, hari ingaruka zagarutsweho zikomoka ku kumara umwanya wose muri filimi/videwo, harimo izigaragara ku mubiri ndetse no mu buzima bwo mu mutwe:

  • Diyabete.
  • Umubyibuho ukabije
  • Indwara y’agahinda gakabije, umuhangayiko no kwigunga.
  • Gutakaza ubushobozi bwo gufata mu mutwe.
  • Kutabasha kuzuza inshingano uko bikwiriye (kurasa ku ntego mu gihe uri mu kazi ushinzwe), ibintu bishobora no kukwirukanisha.

Ku bana kandi, iyi myitwarire ntizabura kugira ingaruka ndetse zaba n’izigihe kirekire :

  • Kutiga neza mu ishuri, ahubwo intekerezo zabo zigasubira mu byo babonye muri filimi.
  • Kurotaguzwa nijoro no kubura amahwemo bitewe n’ubwoko bwa filimi/videwo barebye.
  • Gutakaza ubushobozi bwo gukora ikintu cyose kibasaba gutekereza cyane.
  • Ubunebwe muri rusange.
  • Umunaniro wa hato na hato.

Ikindi muri rusange cyagaragaye nk’ingaruka mbi zo kureba filimi ni uko ‘uwabaswe nazo agenda yadukana imico runaka ikomoka ku byo agenda abona muri filimi/videwo akunze kureba : ubusinzi, ubusambanyi, urugomo, gushira isoni, uburakari, gutinyuka umutungo w’abandi,…’

Muri make, ikintu cyose kigira uruhande rwiza iyo gikoreshejwe mu buryo bukwiriye. Iyo habayeho kurengera, nta kabuza ingaruka ntizibura kuba mbi : kurengera kose kugira icyo kwangiza. Filimi/videwo nazo zifite uruhande rwiza, ariko mu gihe uzikoresha ari mu murongo ‘ukwiriye’.