Ikoreshwa ry’ibiyobyabwenge ni ikibazo gikomereye ibihugu byose by’isi, kigahangayikisha n’abayituye. Mu Rwanda imibare igaragaza ko abakoresha ibiyobyabwenge bagenda biyongera.

Duhereye mu mwaka wa 2016 imibare itwereka ko hafashwe abantu banywa cyangwa bacuruza ibiyobyabwenge 4818, hafatwa ibiro 4571,389 by’Urumogi, litiro 18238,1 za Kanyanga ndetse n’ibiro 4,1 bya Heroin n’ibiro 6 bya mayirungi. Abafashwe batagejeje ku myaka 18 ni abana 55. Ni ukuvuga ko abarengeje imyaka 18 bari 4763.

Mu mezi ane abanza y’umwaka wa 2017 mu Rwanda hafashwe ibiro 1887 by’urumogi na litiro 3299 bya kanyanga ndetse hanafatwa ibiro 4 bya Mugo(heroin).

Dushingiye ku ku rutonde rw’ ibiyobyabwenge ruteganywa n’ mategeko igihugu cyacu kigenderaho, ibikunze kugaragara ni: urumogi, kanyanga, mayirungi, Mugo(Heroin), lisansi, kole, alukolo, cocaine n’ibinini byo kwa muganga bikoreshwa nk’ibiyobyabwenge (Rohypinol, Diazepam na Morphine).

Mu bitaro bivura indwara zo mu mutwe by’i Ndera, umubare w’abafite ibibazo byo mu mutwe batewe n’ikoreshwa ry’ibiyobyabwenge wavuye 994 muri 2010, ugera kuri 1432 muri 2015, 2804 muri 2016 naho muri 2017 ni abantu 1960.

Huye Isange Rehabiliattaion Center yo muri 2017 yakiriye abantu 209 bafite ibibazo bituruka ku ikoreshwa ry’ibiyobyabwenge; naho bivurije mu bitaro by’uturere ni abantu 448.

Mbese ikiyobyabwenge ni iki?

Ikiyobyabwenge n’ikintu cyose gihindura imitekerereze n’imyitwarire bikagira ingaruka ku buzima bw’umuntu, cyaba kinyowe, gihumetswe cyangwa gitewe mu rushinge, n’ubundi buryo bwose cyafatwamo.

Photo by Brian Lundquist on Unsplash

Bimwe mu biyobyabwenge bikunze gukoreshwa.

• Urumogi (Cannabis sativa): Urumogi rwitwa amazina menshi harimo Bangi, Ganja, Agatabi ko ku mugongo w’ingona n’andi.

Kokayine: Ni ikiyobyabwenge gisa n’ifu y’umweru kiva mu bibabi by’igiti kitwa coca kiboneka mu bihugu byo muri Amerika y’amajyepfo nka Columbia, Brazil, Argentine na Mexique. Igiti cya Coca gisa na kawa duhinga iwacu mu Rwanda. Ariko iyo ibyo bibabi babivanze n’indi miti yo mu butabire bita sulfuric acid, potassium permanganate na hydrochloric acid bitanga ifu y’umweru ariyo twita Cocaine. Iyi fu ikaba ikoreshwa nk’icyiyobyabwenge bitera mu maraso cyangwa bakagihumeka.

Heroyine (mugo): Ni ikiyobyabwenge gisa n’ifu y’umweru ariko cyo gikorwa mu mariragege y’urubuto rw’igiti cyitwa Opium Poppy gihingwa mu bihugu byo muri Asia nka Pakistani, Afuganistani na Yemeni. Mu Rwanda kizwi ku izina rya Mugo kikaba gikoreshwa kivanzwe n’urumogi cyangwa bakagihumeka. Nk’uko twabibonye kuri cocaine, iki kiyobyabwenge cya heroin nacyo gikorwa hifashishijwe indi miti yo mu butabire bita sulfuric acid, potassium permanganate na hydrochloric acid bitanga ifu y’umweru ariyo twita heroin cyangwa Mugo.

Mayirungi (khat): Ni ikiyobyabwenge gisa n’ibyatsi bikunze kugaragara bizengurutse ubusitani bwinshi muri iki gihe. Gituruka mu bihugu bya Kenya, Tanzaniya na Etiyopiya ariko no mu turere twa Kirehe na Ngoma gikunze kwimeza mu mashyamba. Abakinywa bagikanjakanja bakivanze na shikareti kikababuza gusinzira.

Imiti ifatwa nk’ibiyobyabwenge.

Ni imiti yandikwa na muganga igenewe abantu bafite ububabare budasanzwe, ikaba idakwiye kunyobwa na buri muntu ubonetse wese. Kuri uru rutonde rw’imiti ifatwa nk’ibiyobyabwenge, ikunze kugaragara mu ngo zicuruza ibiyobyabwenge twavuga Rohypnol, Diazepam na Morphine.

Ibindi biyobyabwenge.

  • Inzoga zikaze z’amoko menshi na alukolo ubwayo.
  • PCP, LSD and n’ibindi biyayuramutwe.
  • Ibyo bashoreza mu mazuru ‘inhalants’, nka tineri y’irangi ‘paint thinners’ na supagulu ‘glue’
  • Imiti igabanya uburibwe ikomoka kuri ‘opium’: codeine na oxycodone, heroine
  • Imiti igusha uwayinyweye ikinya, imusinziriza cyangwa imumara umuhangayiko ‘anxiolytics = tranquilizers’.
  • Cocaine, methamphetamine n’ibindi bitera gushamaduka.
  • Itabi ryo mu buryo bwose (ibibabi, ibikamba, ibigoma, ubugoro,…)

Iteka rya Minisitiri w’ubuzima numero 20/35 ryo kuwa 09/06/2015 ryashyize ku rutonde rw’ibiyobyabwenge ibi bikurikira: Kole (kuyihumeka), Lisansi (kuyihumeka) ndetse n’indi nzoga yose ifite alukolo y’ubwoko bwa methanol ingana na 0,5%. Gusa igipimo cya alukolo inywebwa yo mu bwoko bwa Ethanol ni 45%, iyo irenze aha ikinyobwa nacyo gifatwa nk’ikiyobyabwenge.

Impamvu zitera ikoreshwa ry’ibiyobyabwenge

Mu mpamvu zikunze kuvugwa kw’ikoreshwa ry’ibiyobyabwenge twavuga izi zikurikira:

• Ikwirakwizwa ry’ibiyobyabwenge (byorohereza ababikoresha kubibona),

• Icyo bitanga mu mubiri w’ababikoresha,

• Agakungu/ikigare,

• Ibibazo bijyanye n’amarangamutima, ibitekerezo,

• Ubumenyi buke ku ngaruka zikoreshwa ry’ibiyobyabwenge,

• Umwuga, aho umuntu atuye, abo abana nabo (hagaragara ikoreshwa ry’ibiyobyabwenge),

• Uburwayi bwo mu mutwe.

Uburyo ibiyobyabwenge bikoreshwa

Uburyo bukunze gukoreshwa twavuga nko: gutumura, kunywa binyuze mu kanwa, kwitera inshinge, guhumeka cyangwa gushoreza.

Ni ryari bavuga ko umuntu ari imbata[1] y’ibiyobyabwenge?

Bavuga ko kugira ngo umuntu yitwe imbata y’ikiyobyabwenge agomba kuba afite bitatu mu bimenyetso bikurikira:

• Irari ridashira ryo gufata ikiyobyabwenge,

• Kugira ububabare cyangwa ibindi bimenyetso iyo ikiyobyabwenge cyagabanutse cyangwa cyabuze mu mubiri,

• Gukenera kongera ingano y’ikiyobyabwenge kugirango yumve amerewe neza uko abishaka (tolerance),

• Gutakaza ishyaka ryo gukora ibindi bintu bitari ikoresha ry’ikiyobyabwenge,

• mbese gukoresha igihe kinini cy’umwanya we wa buri munsi ku ikoreshwa ry’ikiyobyabwenge,

• Gukomeza gukoresha ikiyobyabwenge n’igihe azi neza ingorane cyamuteje ningaruka ashobora guhura nazo.

Ingaruka zo gukoresha ibiyobyabwenge.

Ikoreshwa ry’ibiyobyabwenge rigira ingaruka ku mubiri, ku buzima bwo mu mutwe, ku mibanire n’abandi, ndetse no k’umurimo cyangwa umwuga umuntu yari asanzwe akora. Izindi ngaruka ziba kuri ejo hazaza h’umuntu.

Hiyongeraho kandi ingaruka zijyanye no guhanwa n’amategeko.

A/ Ingaruka ku mubiri.
Mu ndwara z’umubiri twavuga nk’uburwayi bw’umwijima, ubw’umutima ubwonko n’imyakura ndetse n’ubumuga bushobora kubikomokaho. Hari kandi uburwayi bw’urwungano ngogozi, indwara z’ubuhumekero, kanseri, gutakaza ubushobozi bw’umubiri bwo kurwanya indwara, SIDA, ibindi…

B/ Ingaruka k’ubuzima bwo mu mutwe.
Ibibazo byo mu mutwe birushaho kuba urusobe ndetse uko bitinda abantu bakagira indwara zikomeye zirimo: gutakaza ubushake bwo gukora, ubushobozi bwo gufata mu mutwe, agahinda gakabije no kwiyahura, ndetse n’uburwayi bukomeye bwo mu mutwe.

C/ Ingaruka ku mibanire n’abandi, ku murimo n’ejo hazaza. Muri zo twavuga guhora mu myenda (amadeni), impagarara n’amahane mu muryango, gusaba impushya za hato na hato ndetse no gusiba akazi, kwirukanwa mu mashuri cyangwa ku kazi, ubukene, kwiyandarika, uburaya n’ibindi… Ingaruka ku bukungu bw’igihugu nazo ziragaragara mu nzego nyinshi; abakozi babaye bakeya mu rubyiruko kuko urwinshi rwirirwa ntacyo rukora, ibigo bya “Transit Center” na “Rehabilitation Centers” bitwara amafaranga menshi ku ngengo y’imari.

Uburyo bwo gufasha uwahuye n’ikibazo cy’ikoreshwa ry’ibiyobyabwenge.

Ubufasha bugomba gutangwa hibandwa cyane cyane ku mpamvu zitera ikoreshwa ry’ibiyobyabwenge:

• Gukumira ikoreshwa n’ikwirakwizwa ry’ibiyobyabwenge,

• Gushishikariza urubyiruko kwirinda agakungu/ibigare bibakurura mw’ikoreshwa ry’ibiyobyabwenge,

• Mu gihe umuntu yaba afite ibibazo bijyanye n’amarangamutima cyangwa n’imitekerereze, akegera abashinzwe ku mufasha aho kugira ngo yirohe mw’ikoreshwa ry’ibiyobyabwenge,

• Mu gihe umuntu yatangiye gukoresha ibiyobyabwenge, amaze guhura na zimwe mu ngaruka twavuze hejuru nko kunanirwa kubihagarika we ubwe, kurwara indwara zo mu mutwe cyangwa z’umubiri, abamuri hafi basabwa kumenyesha inzego zibishinzwe (uburezi, umuryango muri rusange) akagezwa kwa muganga kugirango abone ubufasha, byaba ngombwa n’abo bafatanya gukoresha ibiyobyabwenge bakagenerwa n’izo nzego gahunda z’ubufasha zitandukanye zirimo kugororwa no gufashwa kureka ibiyobyabwenge.

Uruhare rwawe mu kurwanya no gukumira ibiyobyabwenge.

Gukumira ibiyobyabwenge ni inshingano ya buri wese. By’umwihariko urubyiruko rurashishikarizwa ibi bikurikira:

• Kwirinda ibigare/agakungu bibakurura mu ikoreshwa ry’ibiyobyabwenge.

• Kwita no kumenya umuntu utangiye kugira amarangamutima n’imitekerereze bidasanzwe.

• Gushinga amahuriro ‘club’ zo kurwanya ibiyobyabwenge mu mashuri n’ahandi bateranira.

• Gutanga amakuru ku nzego z’ibanze cyangwa kuri polisi mu gihe habonetse ahari ibiyobyabwenge

Gukunda umurimo no gutekereza iteka icyaguteza imbere.

Hariho amategeko avuga ku byerekeye ibiyobyabwenge?

  1. Itegeko n°03/2012 ryo kuwa 15/02/2012 rigena imikoreshereze y’ibiyobyabwenge n’urusobe rw’imiti ikoreshwa nka byo mu Rwanda.
  2. Iteka rya Minisitiri w’Intebe N° 113/03 ryo ku wa 19/06/2015 rishyiraho Komite ihuriweho na za Minisiteri, ishinzwe kurwanya ikoreshwa ry’ibiyobyabwenge n’imiti ikoreshwa nka byo ritemewe n’amategeko kandi rikagena imiterere n’imikorere byacyo.
  3. Itegeko N° 01/2012/OL ryo kuwa 02/05/2012 Ngenga rishyiraho igitabo cy’amategeko ahana.
  4. Itegeko N°54/2011 ryo kuwa 14/12/2011 ryerekeye uburenganzira bw’umwana n’uburyo bwo kumurinda no kumurengera (Article 44).

5. Hari kandi n’amategeko mpuzamahanga

Mbese ninde ufite ibyago byinshi byo kuba imbata?

Buri muntu agira ubwonko n’umubiri bitandukanye n’iby’undi. Binavuze ko abantu bitwara ugutandukanye ku biyobyabwenge. Bamwe birabaryohera bagashyekerwa. Abandi birababihira, bakabizinukwa. Ntabwo ariko ukoresheje ibiyobyabwenge wese ahinduka imbata yabyo. Kandi ikoreshwa ry’ibiyobyabwenge rishobora kugwirira uwo ari we wese, ku kigero icyo ari cyo cyose. Hari kandi ibintu bitandukanye bishobora kukongerera ibyago byo kubatwa n’ibiyobyabwenge, harimo:

·       Amateka y’umuryango wawe[2].

·       Gukoresha imiti ikaze ukiri muto.

·       Ibibazo / indwara zo mu mutwe.

·       Ibibazo mu mibanire n’abandi[3].

Ni gihe ki ukwiriye gutangira gushakisha ubufasha[4]?

Niba ikoresha ry’imiti ryawe ritangiye kuguteza ibibazo, ihutire kubiganiriza muganga. Gukira kuba imbata y’ibiyobyabwenge bishobora gufata igihe. Ubuvuzi bwifashishwa ni ubujyanama bukangura ubushake, ndetse n’imiti imwe n’imwe izaguhuza ikiyobyabwenge runaka[5].


[1]https://www.psychiatry.org/patients-families/addiction/what-is-addiction.  Consulted on 09/11/2020 at 8:30PM.

[2] https://www.webmed.com/food recipes/alcohol myths.  Consulted on 06/11/2020 at 11:25PM’

[3]https://www.webmed.com/sex relationship Consulted on 06/11/2020 at 9:25PM.

[4]https://www.samhsa.gov/substance abuse and mental health services.  Consulted on 10/11/2020 at 9:45PM.

[5]https://www.webmed.com/balance/therapy counselling.  Consulted on 06/11/2020 at 11:25PM.

Photo by Brian Lundquist on Unsplash