You've successfully subscribed to ISHURI
Great! Next, complete checkout for full access to ISHURI
Welcome back! You've successfully signed in.
Success! Your account is fully activated, you now have access to all content.
Success! Your billing info is updated.
Billing info update failed.
UBUREZI MU MYAKA 10 IRI IMBERE: IMPINDUKA ZITEZWE. (IGICE CYA 1)

UBUREZI MU MYAKA 10 IRI IMBERE: IMPINDUKA ZITEZWE. (IGICE CYA 1)

Isi ya none iri gutera imbere ku muvuduko mwinshi kurusha ikindi gihe cyabayeho, uburezi buri guhinduka vuba, kandi amashuri atanga ubumenyi agomba kugendana n’izi mpinduka.

Ivan Nyagatare
Ivan Nyagatare

1. Isura nshya mu myigishirize mu mashuri y’ibanze.

Umunyeshuri wo muri ibi bihe agomba gucengerwa, gucenshura ndetse no kwakira amakuru n’ubumenyi bihindagurika ku muvuduko wo hejuru kandi mu buryo bugendanye n’ikoranabuhanga rigezweho. Mu mwaka wa 2013 (ubwo iyi nyandiko yashyirwaga hanze bwa mbere), amashuri menshi yari amashuri mato yatangaga ubumenyi bw’ibanze : gusoma, kwandika, imibare, ubumenyi bw’isi ndetse n’ubundi bumenyi bw’ibanze ; kuri ubu bumenyi hakiyongeraho imyitozo ku mikino itandukanye. N’ubwo uru rusobe rw’ubumenyi umunyeshuri yahabwaga bwamuganishaga ku kuba umuntu ujijutse, impinduka zagiye zikorwa kuri bene iyi gahunda ; nyamara byagaragaye ko zidahagije ku kubaka umuntu ukenewe ku isoko ry’umurimo mu isi ya none.

Isi ya none iri gutera imbere ku muvuduko mwinshi kurusha ikindi gihe cyabayeho, uburezi buri guhinduka vuba, kandi amashuri atanga ubumenyi bw’ibanze agomba kugendana n’izi mpinduka –aha kugera ku bumenyi ntibibe ariyo ntego, ahubwo ibyigwa : gusoma, kwandika, ubumenyi mu gutekereza kwimbitse bikaganisha umunyeshuri ku myigire isa n’iyahozeho kera : ubuvanganzo bugendanye n’ubushobozi bwo gusesengura buganisha ku kwishakira ibisubizo.

Muri ubu buryo bushya bw’imyigire, ubuvanganzo ntibisobanuye gusa ibijyanye n’ihererekanyamagambo - ntekerezo, ahubwo ‘kwivumburira ndetse no gushyira ku murongo ibitekerezo bifatika ku bumenyi bw’ibanze ndetse n’ubumenyi rusange’. Muri macye, ntabwo ikivugwa ari amategeko y’imyandikire y’ijambo n’itumanaho gusa. Ahubwo, ubu nibwo buryo bukoreshwa mu gufata igitekerezo runaka cy’ibanze, kikagenda gicenshurwa (mu mitekerereze yimbitse ndetse n’ibiganiro-mpaka) cyunganirwa n’ibindi bitekerezo mu kukinonosora kurushaho, kugeza urwo ruvange rw’intekerezo rushyizwe ku murongo rukabyara ubumenyi runaka (imyanzuro y’inyurabwenge), muri ubu buryo, ubwenge bwa muntu bubasha kugenda bushyira ku murongo ibyo bwakira.

Ubu buryo bw’imitekerereze igenga imyigire mishya bushobora nanone kugerwaho binyuze muri porogame za mudasobwa zigenga imyigire y’ubumenyi runaka, izindi porogaramu z’ikoranabuhanga cyangwa se uburyo bw’imyigire bukomatanije buhuriza hamwe amabwiriza yihariye agenga imyigire y’umuntu ku giti cye ndetse n’imyigishirize y’ubugeni n’ubumenyi mu itumanaho.


2. Ubundi buryo bw’isuzumabumenyi.

Mu kigwi cyo kugereranya abanyeshuri hagati yabo, uburyo nyabwo bwo gusuzuma uko umunyeshuri atera intambwe mu gusobanukirwa n’ubumenyi bushya aba ahuye nabwo, umwigisha aba agomba gusuzuma intambwe ku yindi umunyeshuri kugira ngo amenye neza ibyo amaze gusobanukirwa ndetse n’ahamwisobye, bityo intambwe ikurukiraho mu ihererekanyabumenyi igashingira aho.

Umuco ukize urangwa no kunguka ndetse no kungura – hagendewe ku rugero rw’umushyikirano uguhuza n’abandi. Ubu buryo bwifashisha ihererekanyamakuru mu nshuti busimbura uburyo bwo guhugira mu bitabo, gusesengura inyandiko, kwibaza ku bitekerezo byatanzwe cyangwa se ibiganiro byagutse, ahubwo ugasanga ayo makuru ashunguye ahererekanwa icyarimwe ku bikoresho ngurukanabumenyi hagati y’amatsinda menshi y’abantu.

Ubushobozi bwo kubasha gutambutsa igitekerezo ku ntambwe iyo ari yo yose muri gahunda yo kwiga bwahinduye cyane ishusho twibonamo ubwacu ndetse n’inkomoko y’amatsiko asanzwe aranga umuntu. Mu buryo ubwo ari bwo bwose, imitekerereze iyo ari yo yose isigaye igengwa akenshi n’uburyo imbaga nyamwinshi yumva ibintu. Uburemere igitekerezo runaka cyakiranwa mu itsinda runaka nibwo buhita bugaragaza agaciro k’icyo gitekerezo muri iryo tsinda-ubu bukaba bumwe mu buryo bw’isuzuma. Mu yandi magambo, igitekerezo ntigisuzumirwa ku kuba ari ‘nyakuri cyangwa se agashya’, ahubwo ‘uburyo cyitabiriwe ndetse no kwamamara kwacyo’. Uyu munsi, uburyo bw’isuzumabumenyi butandukanye n’uko bwari buri mu myaka 20 itambutse.


3. Ibipimo ngenderwaho by’imyigishirize isanzwe bizasimburwa n‘integanyanyigisho nshya.

Uko ubushobozi bwo kugera ku makuru kuri bose bugenda bwiyongera, ndetse n’isakazabumenyi ku mbuga nkoranyambaga rigakomeza kugenda rizamuka, hari impinduka zigaragaza–ndetse zigaragaza n’ingaruka- ku bipimo ngenderwaho bisanzwe by’imyigishirize. Muri iyi mbata y’imyigishirize isanzwe, isuzuma rishobora kugaragaza ko umubare munini w’abigishwa wageze neza ku bumenyi (watsinze isuzumabumenyi) hashingiwe kuri bya bipimo ngenderwaho runaka bijonjowe mu bindi ; nyamara bagahura n’ingorane mu gushakisha amakuru, kuyasesengura ndetse no kuyakoresha muri bwa bumenyi mu gihe bageze mu buryo bw’imikorere batamenyereye, mbese bushya kuri bo.

4. Gushobora kwigeza ku bumenyi bizahindura ishusho y’imyigishirize isanzwe.

Ubushobozi bw’umunyeshuri bwo ‘kwiyigisha ubumenyi’ ntibivuze gusa kugera ku bumenyi butandukanye bitewe n’icyo umuntu akeneye gukora muri icyo gihe, ahubwo kugera ku bumenyi bufatika ku gihe bukenerewe, ubumenyi bwateguwe hagendewe ku bo buteguriwe. Ibi rero bigatuma kwiga hagendewe ku nteganyanyigisho zidahinduka zigenga imyigishirize isanzwe bishobora no kuzazima, kuko buri wese azaba ashobora kwiyigisha icyo ari cyo cyose akeneye, mu gihe agikenereye ; akajonjoramo ibyo adakeneye.

5. Hazaboneka udushya muri gahunda z’amasomo.

Imibare, ubumenyi, ubumenyamuntu ndetse n’ubuvanganzo byamye ari ubumenyi bwubakiyeho imyigishirize mu gihe gisaga ikinyejana. Ariko mu isi ya none iyobowe n’ikoranabuhanga, ibyerekezo bishya mu bumenyi biriyongera mu buryo busanzwe. Mu kigwi cyo gukurikira amasomo ashingiye ku nteganyanyigisho zihariye zagennwe mbere, birashoboka gukurikira amasomo asanzwe ariko ajyanishijwe n’udushya dushingiye ku gusakara kw’ikoranabuhanga.

Kandi birashoboka kubijyanisha. Ibi ntabwo bisobanuye ko uburyo bwari busanzwe bwo guhanahana ubumenyi butakiri ngombwa, ahubwo uko ubumenyi bugenda buvuka bukomoka ku guhuza ubwari busanzwe bugenda burushaho gufasha gusobanukirwa ubumenyi mbere bwagaragaraga nk’ubucyifitemo ‘ibicucu by’amayobera’. Urugero, imibare ishobora guhuzwa n’ubumenyi n’ubumenyamuntu maze bigatanga imbata nyayo yavamo porogaramu y’ikoranabuhanga ya ‘Maker Movement Culture’.

6. Impamyabumenyi zunganirwa na ‘avatars = amashusho-ndangamuntu’.

Muri kamere muntu habamo gukenera kwigaragaza ndetse no gukenera kureba abandi. Ibi nibyo byabaye intandaro y’ibirori, aho ishusho, kwigaragaza, kumenyekanisha ko amarembo akuganaho afunguye, bisa n’ibyumvikanisha ubushobozi buhanitse mu busesenguzi bwimbitse ndetse no kwihangana. Ubu buryo bw’uko abantu bakomeza gushamadukira kwimenyekanisha –mu buryo bwisanisha n’uko ibigo bikomeye byamye byiyamamaza mu gihe kingana n’ikinyejana cyose, umusaruro wo kwimenyekanisha mu burezi ntaho utandukaniye n’uw’ibyo bigo : umuntu akagira agaciro kagendeye ku kwamamara kwe, ingano y’ubumenyi yibitseho, ndetse n’amakuru amwerekeyeho, kurenza agaciro ashobora guhabwa n’ubumuntu bwe cyangwa se umushyikirano agirana n’abandi ; ariyo ya mashusho – ndangamuntu.