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UBWONKO MU IGIHE CYA COVID-19, INDWARA Y'AGAHINDA GAKABIJE N'INGARUKA ZA JENOCIDE.

UBWONKO MU IGIHE CYA COVID-19, INDWARA Y'AGAHINDA GAKABIJE N'INGARUKA ZA JENOCIDE.

Mu Rwanda, ubuvuzi nk’ubu buboneka ku mavuriro. Umuryango n’ababana n’umuntu ufite iki kibazo basabwa kugira uruhare rukomeye mu kumufasha, haba mu kumugeza kwa muganga, mu kumuganiriza, no kumuba hafi mu bundi buryo.

Ivan Nyagatare
Ivan Nyagatare

Mu Rwanda ikibazo cy’ihungabana cyatewe cyane cyane na jenoside yakorewe abatutsi, ndetse n’inkurukizi zayo. Ariko nk’uko ubushakashatsi bubigaragaza, hari izindi mpamvu zishobora gutuma habaho ihungabana. Mu bihe byo kwibuka jenoside yakorewe abatutsi, abantu benshi basubiza ibitekerezo inyuma, bakibuka ibihe bikomeye banyuzemo mu gihe cya jenoside.

Muri iki gihe, abantu benshi bari bafite ibibazo bishingiye ku ‘gupfa no gukira’. Buri munota 1 wari ufite agaciro kangana n’ubuzima bwose. Iyi ni imwe mu mpamvu z’ihungabana ndetse n’agahinda gakabije ka benshi mu banyarwanda uyu munsi.

Mu mwaka wa 2018, Minisiteri y’Ubuzima mu Rwanda yakoze ubushakashatsi bwagaragaje ko 35% by’abarokotse jenoside yakorewe abatutsi bari bafite ihungabana kubera ingaruka za jenoside. Kimwe mu bibazo bikomeye birebana n’ihungabana, ni ukugira agahinda gakabije. Ubushakashatsi ku buzima bwo mu mutwe bwakozwe muri uwo mwaka wa 2018 bwagaragaje ko indwara y’agahinda gakabije yari ifitwe n’abanyarwanda 12%.

Buri wese muri twe ajya anyura mu bihe yumva ananiwe, ababaye, afite intege nke. Yumva ashaka kuba ari wenyine. Ibi ni ibisanzwe kandi bishobora kuba kuri buri wese. Gusa, iyo ibingibi bibayeho, bikamara iminsi igeze kuri 15, umuntu yumva ababaye, adashaka kugira uwo bahura, atekereza ko nta gaciro afite, akanga kurya cyangwa se akarya cyane, agatangira kwanga ibintu yakundaga yumva ntacyo bikimaze, aho biba bishoboka cyane ko arwaye indwara y’agahinda gakabije.


Hari ubwoko butandukanye bw’agahinda gakabije.

  • Post Partum Depression. (PPD). Ni agahinda gakunze kuba ku mubyeyi uherutse kubyara. Abaganga bavuga ko bikunze gutangira nyuma y’amezi 3 umuntu abyaye, ariko bikamara igihe gito bigashira.
  • Trouble affectif saisonier. Aka ni agahinda cyangwa se umunabi biri ku rwego runaka, buri wese agira bitewe no kugabanuka k’urumuri karemano. Iyi ni ya myiyumvire (feelings / sentiments) buri wese agira iyo itumba rigitangira. Kumva utishimye muri wowe kandi utazi icyabiguteye.
  • Trouble depressif persistants. Iki ni igihe umara igihe kinini ufite agahinda ndetse no kwigunga, kandi bikamara igihe kinini. Bishobora guhera ku myaka 2 kuzamura.
  • Depression majeure. Ubu ni ubwoko bw’agahinda gakabije baba bavuga kenshi iyo bavuga ko umuntu afite agahinda gakabije yatewe n’ikintu kibi cyamubayeho, kikamuhungabanya.

Ishami rya ONU rishinzwe ubuzima (WHO / OMS) rivuga ko indwara y’agahinda gakabije ari yo mpamvu ya 2 ku isi itera ubumuga mu batuye umubumbe. Iyi ndwara iri ku mwanya wa 4 mu ndwara zitangwaho amafaranga menshi mu isi.


Mu mwaka wa 2020, indwara y’agahinda gakabije yaje ku mwanya wa 2 mu burwayi bwatanzweho amafaranga menshi ku isi. Bitekerezwa ko bifitanye isano n’icyorezo cya COVID-19 cyahungabanyije.

ubuzima bwo mu mutwe bwa benshi, ahanini bitewe no kwangirika k’ubukungu, ndetse n’imibanire y’abantu.

Abantu bafite hagati y’imyaka 15 na 44 nibo bibasiwe n’agahinda gakabije. Ingaruka ikomeye cyane iterwa n’agahinda gakabije ni ukwiyahura. Buri mwaka mu isi habarwa abantu ibihumbi 800 bapfa biyahuye. Abenshi muri aba, bafata iki cyemezo kubera agahinda gakabije. Buri mwaka, abantu miliyoni 350 bisanga mu kibazo cy’agahinda gakabije kubera ibibazo bahura nabyo, bikabagiraho ingaruka mu mitekerereze. 25% muri aba nibo bonyine bagira amahirwe yo gukurikiranwa n’abaganga.

Mu bihe nk’ibi, bigenda bite mu bwonko bw’umuntu wahuye n’iki kibazo ?

Imwe mu nshingano zikomeye z’ubwonko bw’umuntu ni ukugenzura no gutegeka amarangamutima ye. Bavuga ko mu gihe cy’amarangamutima asanzwe, igihe nta cyakubayeho kigushimisha cyangwa se ikikubabaza, ubwonko bwawe bukoresha 20% by’ingufu zabwo. Iyo ugize agahinda, ingufu ubwonko bukoresha ziriyongera.

Kugira agahinda gakabije, ni uguhinduka kw’imikorere y’ibinyabutabire biba mu bwonko bw’umuntu. Iyo umuntu afite agahinda gakabije, imwe mu misemburo ivubuka mu bwonko bwacu nk’uwitwa Dopamine, ariwo utanga ibyishimo, uwitwa Ocytocine ugira uruhare mu buzima bw’imyororokere, cyane cyane ufasha mu gihe umubyeyi arimo kubyara, uwitwa Serotonine ugira uruhare mu kugena uko umuntu yiyumva, gufata mu mutwe, kwishima no gusinzira ; iyi yose ihagarika kuvubuka cyangwa se ikavubuka nabi. Mu gihe cy’agahinda gakabije.

Mu gihe umuntu afite ikintu kibi cyamubayeho cyangwa se yatekereje kikamuhangayikisha, cyangwa se nanone kikamubabaza cyane, iyi misemburo ishinzwe kugena amarangamutima ihagarika kuvubuka. Icyo gihe n’ibitekerezo by’uwo muntu bihita bihinduka, byose bikerekeza ku gutekereza ibibi gusa.

Iyo ibitekerezo bibaye bibi, n’imyitwarire irahinduka. Umuntu atangira gushaka kubaho wenyine cyangwa se kwigumga. Agatangira kwanga bimwe mu bintu ubundi yakundaga cyane. Umuntu ashobora kubura ibitotsi, cyangwa se agasinzira nabi, ku buryo igihe cyose ahora ananiwe, ashaka gusinzira. Akumva atagifite agaciro, ndetse akagira ibyo yishinja. Akagorwa no gufata ibyemezo, ndetse byagera kure, agatangira kugira ibitekerezo byo kwiyahura.

Mu Rwanda, jenoside yakorewe abatutsi niyo mpamvu iza imbere mu kuba yarahungabanyije ubuzima bwo mu mutwe bw’abanyarwanda. Mu zindi mpamvu zivugwa mu Rwanda, harimo impamvu zishingiye ku ihohoterwa –ryaba iribabaza umubiri, cyangwa se irihungabanya imitekerereze, hakabamo kandi impamvu y’ikoreshwa ry’ibiyobyabwenge, cyane cyane mu rubyiruko.

Ubuvuzi buhabwa abahuye n’iki kibazo, harimo guhabwa imiti ndetse n’uburyo bw’ibiganiro umurwayi agirana n’umuganga cyangwa se umukangurambaga wahuguriwe ibijyanye n’ubuzima bwo mu mutwe n’ihungabana.

Mu Rwanda, ubuvuzi nk’ubu buboneka ku mavuriro. Umuryango n’ababana n’umuntu ufite iki kibazo basabwa kugira uruhare rukomeye mu kumufasha, haba mu kumugeza kwa muganga, mu kumuganiriza, no kumuba hafi mu bundi buryo.