MBESE GUTAHURA IBINYOMA BIRASHOBOKA ?

MBESE GUTAHURA IBINYOMA BIRASHOBOKA ?

Wowe ubigenza ute kugira ngo umenye umuntu uri kukubeshya? Bizwi neza ko buri wese muri twe ubu bushobozi abwifuza. Bumwe mu buryo butagoye cyane bwo kumenya ko umuntu avugisha ukuri cyangwe se arimo kubeshya ni ukumva impinduka zirimo kuba mu ijwi rye ugereranije n’uko asanzwe avuga.

Ivan Nyagatare

Kuva isi yabaho, ikinyoma cyayifashemo umwanya w’imbere. Muri iyi si, abantu bemera cyane ibyemerwa na benshi, kurusha ibiri ukuri. Tubeshya kubera inyungu. Nta muntu ubeshya atabifitemo inyungu.[2]Kuri twe, kubeshya byabaye ibintu bisanzwe. Kugeza n’ubwo kubeshya twabigeneye umunsi 1 mu mwaka. Itariki ya 1/04 buri mwaka![3]

Uhereye kuri filimi duhora tureba, ukageza ku bitabo dusoma, ababeshyi nibo bagira inyungu nyinshi muri ubu buzima! Iyi niyo mpamvu inyandiko nyinshi z’umuhanga mu by’imitekerereze (philosophe) Jean Jacques Rousseau zihamagarira abantu bose bibwira ko bazi ubwenge « kutihutira kumva no kwemera ibyo babwiwe, ahubwo bakihutira gushaka ibyo batabwiwe. Kuko ukuri kwinshi niho kuba kwibereye».

Wowe ubigenza ute kugira ngo umenye umuntu uri kukubeshya? Bizwi neza ko buri wese muri twe ubu bushobozi abwifuza. Bumwe mu buryo butagoye cyane bwo kumenya ko umuntu avugisha ukuri cyangwe se arimo kubeshya ni ukumva impinduka zirimo kuba mu ijwi rye ugereranije n’uko asanzwe avuga. Ashobora no kuvuga adidimanga, cyangwa agakubita agatwenge aho katari ngombwa mu by’ukuri, kakaba kagaragaza mu by’ukuri kudatuza cyangwa se kubangamirwa mu gihe cyo gutambutsa inkuru irimo ikinyoma.

Ubundi buryo ni ukureba uburyo umuntu yitwara mu kubara inkuru. Niba arimo gukoresha ibimenyetso by’amaboko n’isura cyane kandi atari ko asanzwe. Ikindi mu kumubaza ikibazo kirebana n’inkuru y’ikinyoma arimo kubara, uzasanga ubazwa yitegereza cyane ubaza ari nako atekereza bwangu icyo asubiza kuri icyo kibazo: birasa no gukora imirimo 2 icyarimwe.

Agomba kumva ikibazo adafite icyo aziho na kimwe, ariko kuko yishyize mu mwambaro w’umuntu ubizi, agomba gusubiza yigize nk’umuntu uvuga ibyo azi. Atibeshya nk’umuntu uvuga ukuri! Iki gihe, umuntu nta n’ubwo aba ahumbya. “Kimwe mu bintu bitangaje ku kinyoma, ni uko twese twibwira ko turi abahanga mu kuvumbura ibinyoma ariko tukaba tutazi kubeshya. Nyamara ahubwo turi ababeshyi beza cyane, tukaba abaswa mu kuvumbura ibinyoma! Ikigaragaza ibi, ni uko 18% by’ibinyoma tubeshya ari byo bivumburwa. Bivuze ko 82% by’ibinyoma tubeshya abantu tubahamya, ntibanadukeke!” Claudine Bilan. Impuguke mu mitekerereze n’imibanire mu gitabo yanditse « La psychologie du menteur ».

Birumvikana ko niba ibinyoma byacu bishobora kuvumburwa bitanageze kuri 1/3 cy’ibinyoma byose tubeshya, ni uko turi abahanga cyane mu kubeshya ! tubeshya nk’uko duhumeka ! gusa, n’ubwo turi abahanga bo kubeshya, tukaba abaswa mu kuvumbura ibinyoma, hari abantu baturusha kuvumbura ibinyoma : abapolisi n’abagenzacyaha. Bafite ubumenyi bwo kwifashisha ikintu cyose gifitanye isano n’ubazwa, bakamenya ahaherereye ikinyoma. Kubera iki bene aba bantu bamenya cyane kuvumbura ibinyoma ?

“Hano ni gahunda yihariye cyane, kuko duhura n’ingeri zitandukanye z’abantu, barimo abafite inyungu mu kubeshya kuko baba bafite ibyago byinshi byo gufungwa. Duhura kandi n’abantu bababaye cyangwa bahohotewe bakubwira ibintu bagamije gutuma ukeka ko barenganye. Duhura nanone n’abahohotewe babeshya, abatangabuhamya bashobora kubeshya, duhura n’abana bigoranye kumenya neza aho baherereye, kuko baba bashobora kuvuga ukuri kwabo kose, bitandukanye n’abantu bakuru” Olivier Guenat, Umuyobozi w’abapolisi ahitwa Duchatel – Ubufaransa. Ibi biha akazi ukora iperereza ko kwitegereza buri kimenyetso gitangwa n’umubwira wese. Abakora aka kazi bemeza ko bitegereza cyane ibice by’umubiri nk’ibiganza. Iyo ubazwa yahuje ibiganza, agasobekeranya intoki, ni uko aba adashaka ko biza kumutamaza:aba yishakamo ingufu zo kwibwira ko akomeye nta cyapfa kumunyeganyeza. Abakora amaperereza iyo babonye ibingibi batangira gutekereza byinshi ku magambo uvuga. Amaso nayo ashobora gutanga ibisobanuro ku kinyoma no ku kuri. Abakora iperereza akenshi bitegereza imboni z’umutangabuhamya, bakareba aho arimo kureba n’umwanya amara areba mu cyerekezo runaka mu gihe atanga ubuhamya. Ku isura ariko cyane cyane bareba uburyo umuntu akoresha isura ye mu kugaragaza amarangamutima. Ni amarangamutima agaragazwa n’isura y’umutangabuhamya mu buryo bwihuse cyane ku bury obo babirebera kuri videwo bafata umutangabuhamya: nyuma bayisubiramo bakayireba bayigendesha buhoro cyane ku buryo bashobora no gushushanya uko isura yawe yari imeze.

Gusobanura icyo isura y’umuntu cyangwa se imirongo iyigaragaramo ishaka kuvuga, niyo ntego nyamukuru ya filime zivuga ku iperereza ndetse n’ubugenzacyaha, zirimo nk’iyitwa “Lie to me!” bamwe murayizi. Igaragaza umuhanga uzwi cyane mu kuvumbura ibinyoma. Dr Carl Rightman. Ikinwa ry’iyi filme ryaturutse ku muhanga mu mitekerereze w’umunyamerika, Paul Eckmann. Yakoze ubushakashatsi bwinshi ku kinyoma.

Paul Ekman[4] yashyize hanze ubwoko cyangwa se imiterere y’ibimenyetso birenga 3000 bigaragara ku masura y’abantu barimo kuvuga ibinyoma. We birahagije ko umubwira umureba mu maso byonyine agahita amenya ko ubeshya cyangwa se uvugisha ukuri. Paul Ekman areba utuntu duto cyane ukoresha isura yawe utanabizi kandi tumara igihe gito cyane ku buryo akamenyetso kamwe gashobora no kumara 1/25 cy’isegonda! Utu tumenyetso nitwo bwana Paul Ekman areba akakubwira ati aka kamenyetso ntabwo kajyanye n’ibyo uyu muntu arimo kuvuga. Ekman avuga ko 90% by’utwo tumenyetso tutajyanye n’ibyo umuntu avuga tuba twerekana ikinyoma.

Utu tumenyetso tw’isura nitwo bita “micro expression” mu ndimi z’amahanga.

Ikibazo kiriho uyu munsi, ni uko gukoresha ubu buryo bwa Ekman ku biro by’abapolisi bigoye cyane, kubera ko hari abanyabyaha cyangwa se abakekwaho ibyaha bazi kugenzura ibi bimenyetso byose ku buryo adashobora kuguha icyuho na kimwe cyo kumutahura.



[1] “How to detect lies, fraud and identity theft: Field Guide. A book by Traci Brow, a body language expert.

[2] www.theguardian.com.isitpossibletoliveforayearwithoutlying?books. Yasuwe kwa 26/01/2021 saa 7:30am’.

[3] www.time.com/newsletters/behavior according to body language experts. Yasuwe kuwa 27/01/2021 saa 8:00am.

[4] Paul Ekman. Mu gitabo cye “Telling lies.”