URUZIGA RW’UBUSHOBOZI (Circle of Competence)

URUZIGA RW’UBUSHOBOZI (Circle of Competence)

Uruziga rw’ubushobozi ni urwunge rw’amahame ngengamikorere rworoshye: Buri wese muri twe, bishingiye ku bunararibonye bwe cyangwa se ubumenyi yize, agenda yiyubakamo ubumenyi bw’ingirakamaro mu bice runaka by’ubumenyi, imikorere n’ubuzima busanzwe ku isi

Ivan Nyagatare


Gusobanukirwa uruziga rw’ubushobozi bwawe biguha ubushobozi bwo gukumira ibibazo, ukabasha kumenya aho ufite imbaraga bityo bikaguha inzira yo kwivugurura, kandi bikanagufasha kwigira ku bandi.

Ubu buryo bw’amahame ngengamikorere bushingiye ku kwimenya mu buryo bwo gusobanukirwa neza uruziga rw’ubushobozi ufite bumaze imyaka myinshi bukoreshwa na Warren Buffett nk’uburyo bwashingirwaho n’abashoramari, mu gufata ibyemezo bigamije kubafasha gushora imari yabo gusa mu bikorwa biyizeyemo ubushobozi kurenza ibindi. Ingingo shingiro z’uru rwunge rw’amahame zigaragara mu nyandiko Warren yashyize ahagaragara mu mwaka wa 1996.

Icyo umushoramari akeneye ni ubushobozi bwo gusesengura neza mu buryo butibeshya ishoramari rijonjowe mu yandi atandukanye. Hano, ijambo “rijonjowe -selected” rifite igisobanuro cyimbitse: Ntabwo ukeneye kuba inzobere kuri buri kigo cy’ishoramari, cyangwa se ibigo byinshi. Icyo ukeneye ni ubushobozi bwawe bwo gusesengura imikorere ya buri kigo kigize urwunge rw’ubushabitsi ishoramari ryawe ryubakiyeho, isesengura rishingiye ku ruziga rw’ubushobozi bwawe. Ingano y’uru ruziga rw’ubushobozi siyo y’ingenzi cyane muri iyi gahunda; ahubwo kumenya aho ubushobozi bwawe bugarukira, nirwo rufunguzo.


Uruziga rw’ubushobozi (Circle Of Competence).

Uruziga rw’ubushobozi ni urwunge rw’amahame ngengamikorere rworoshye: Buri wese muri twe, bishingiye ku bunararibonye bwe cyangwa se ubumenyi yize, agenda yiyubakamo ubumenyi bw’ingirakamaro mu bice runaka by’ubumenyi, imikorere n’ubuzima busanzwe ku isi. Hariho ibice runaka by’ubumenyi byorohera abenshi muri twe kubisobanukirwa kurusha ibindi, mu gihe hariho ibindi bice by’ubumenyi bikenera ubushobozi bw’umwihariko kugirango bibashe gusobanuka.

Twifashishije urugero, abenshi mu twe dufite ubushobozi bwo gusobanukirwa ubumenyi bw’ibanze ku ishoramari rigenga imikorere ya resitora - restaurant: ukodesha cyangwa se ukagura ubuso, ugashora amafaranga yo kuhubaka, kuhategura no gushyiramo ibikoresho nkenerwa byose, hanyuma ugashyira mu mirimo abakozi mu byiciro byose: abakira abakiriya, abatanga amafunguro, abatetsi ndetse n’abashinzwe isuku. (hanyuma, mu gihe ubona ko atari ngombwa ko uba umuyobozi wa resitora, ubwo ushyiraho n’umuyobozi wayo.)

Ubwo aho bigeze aha rero, ikiba gisigaye ni ugucuruza mu buryo bureshya abakiliya benshi bashoboka. Urufunguzo ni ugushyiraho ibiciro bikwiriye kugira ngo haboneke inyungu ku mafunguro ndetse n’ibyo kunywa resitora yawe itanga—ubwo inyungu nyine ni ukuvuga igihe ibyo ugomba gusohoraho amafaranga byose biba byamaze kwishyurwa. N’ubwo igikoni, imikorere ndetse n’ibiciro bizahinduka bitewe na resitora iyo ari yo, resitora zose zikurikira umurongo umwe w’ishoramari.

Ubu bumenyi bw’ibanze, hiyongereyeho ubumenyi bw’ibanze ku ibaruramari ndetse n’ubundi bumenyi buke waba warize bizashoboza uwo ari we wese mu gusesengura ndetse no gushora imali mu bushabitsi bwa resitora imwe cyangwa nyinshi, yifatanyije n’abandi cyangwa se ashoyemo ku giti cye. Ni ibintu byoroshye rwose.  None se, uko abenshi muri twe dushobora gusobanukirwa –no gukora byoroshye ubushabitsi bwa resitora, niko bisobanukiye buri wese imikorere y’ubushabitsi bw’uruganda rukora utwuma duto twa mudasobwa (a microchip company) cyangwa se uruganda rukoresha ikoranabuhanga mu gukora imiti (a biotech drug company) ku rugero rumwe? Nta gushidikanya, siko bimeze.

Ntabwo ndi inzobere. Ariko hari ibyiciro by’ubumenyi mpagazemo neza.—Ibi byiciro nibyo nibandaho rero mu bikorwa byanjye.” — Byavuzwe na Tom Watson Sr., Uwashinze ikigo cya IBM.

Ariko uburyo Buffett abivuga mu buryo busobanutse neza, ntabwo dukeneye byanze bikunze gusobanukirwa urwo rusobe rw’ubumenyi –kuri bamwe bugaragara nk’ubufindo kugira ngo tubashe gushora imali. Icy’agaciro muri ibi kurushaho ahubwo, ni uko dusesengura neza tukamenya tutishuka ibyo dufiteho ubumenyi, maze tukibanda kuri ibyo. Uruziga rwacu rw’ubushobozi rushobora kugenda rwaguka, ariko gahoro gahoro uko igihe gitambuka. Uzabona ko mu gihe iri hame ryirengagijwe, ni cyo gihe amakosa atangira kutwibasira.

Amahame y’’ruziga rw’Ubushobozi’ anakoreshwa mu mibereho isanzwe atari ubushabitsi gusa.

Buffett aganira ku ruziga rw’ubushobozi bw’umuyobozi wa kimwe mu bigo bigize urwunge rw’ubushabitsi bwe –Umurusiya utavuga icyongereza neza, wabashije kuyobora ububiko bwa mbere bw’ibikoresho byo mu nzi muri Leta la Nebraska / USA:

“Kubera ko atari asobanukiwe ibijyanye n’isoko ry’imali n’imigabane, nashoboraga kutamuha ubuyobozi bw’ikigo cyanjye cya Berkshire Hathaway cyari gifite agaciro ka miliyoni $200 z’amadorali ubwo nakiguraga. Ariko narabumuhaye, kuko nari nizeye ko asobanukiwe neza ibyerekeye amafaranga. Asobanukiwe neza ibyerekeye ibikoresho byo mu nzu. Asobanukiwe neza ibyerekeye amazu n’umutungo utimukanwa. Ntabwo asobanukiwe iby’isoko ry’imali n’imigabane, ubwo rero nta n’ubwo akeneye gukora ako kazi. Ariko niba ugiye mu bushabitsi na Mrs. B mu byo nise ‘uruziga rw’ubushobozi’ rwe…ntatinya kukugurira ameza 5,000 akoze neza mu mugoroba umwe (mu gihe abona ko igiciro kikwiriye). Cyangwa se kwishyura amatsinda 20 y’ibikoresho bikozwe mu mbaho, cyangwa se ibindi bikoresho bitandukanye, kuko asobanukiwe neza urubaho n’agaciro k’ibikoresho birukomokaho. Ariko ntashobora kugura imigabane 100 y’ikigo cya General Motors, n’ubwo umugabane waba ari ifaranga 1! Kuko nyine adasobanukiwe iby’isoko ry’imali n’imigabane.
Kuba rero Mrs. B afite ‘uruziga rw’ubushobozi’ rutagutse ntibyamubereye intambamyi. Ahubwo ibinyuranye n’ibyo nibyo bigaragara. Ubwitange bwe muri icyo cyiciro cy’ubumenyi bwamushoboje gutumbira inshingano ze. Muri uko kudatezuka ku nshingano ze, mu bwatsi –area asobanukiwe neza nibyo byamubashishije kugera ku musaruro ushamaje muri icyo kigo”.

Mu bundi buryo, Charlie Munger yifashishije aya mahame ngengamikorere mu bindi byiciro by’ubumenyi n’imibereho muri rusange, yari asanzwe ari umwihariko mu bushabitsi gusa. Ikibazo nyamukuru yari agendereye gusubiza ni: Mu buzima, ni mu biki dukwiriye gushora igihe cyacu (gisanzwe ari kigufi) kinini, kugira ngo tubashe kugera ku ntego zo hejuru rwose? Dore uko Charlie abisobanura:

Icyo ukeneye ni ukubanza gufindura neza aho ubushobozi bwawe buhagaze. Niba uri gukinira mu kibuga utamenyereye, umukino udasobanukiwe neza; uhanganye n’ababifitemo ubumenyi kukurusha; ntabwo warusyaho! Ibi byo ntabwo ukwiriye kubishidikanyaho. Ufite gusesengura witonze ukamenya neza aho ufite imbaraga. Hanyuma ukihatira ‘gukinira umukino usobanukiwe mu kibuga uzi neza’: mu ruziga rw’ubushobozi bwawe.

Ushobora kwiyemeza ko ushobora kuba umukinnyi w’ikirangirire wa tennis ku isi, mu gihe utangiye kugerageza, bidatinze ukabona ko nta kigenda—ukabona ko abandi bakurenzeho (aha ni hamwe bamwe muri iki gihe bakoresha imvugo yo kwihereza ‘kwipasa’ umupira muremure). Ni intego ushobora kwiha, ikurenze. Ariko noneho niba ushaka kuba rwiyemezamirimo wa mbere mu byerekeye gukwirakwiza amazi mu cyaro runaka, ibi bifite amahirwe yo gushoboka ku rugero rungana na ¾ hashingiwe ku bushobozi bwawe. Biragusaba kwiyubakamo ubushake. Biragusaba kubishyiramo inyurabwenge. Ariko nyuma y’igihe runaka, ugomba kuba umaze kwiyubakamo ubumenyi runaka ku bushabitsi bwo gukwirakwiza amazi muri cya cyaro, no kubaka ubushobozi bujyanye n’uyu murimo. Iyi ni intego ishoboka kugerwaho, mu gihe waba wishyiriyeho umurongo ngengamikorere ufatika kandi udatezuka. Aha rero nibwo ushobora gusanga runaka udashobora gutsinda irushanwa na rimwe ry’umukino w’igisoro cyangwa se guhangana ashikamye mu irushanwa ry’umukino wa tennis ashobora kugera kure mu buzima gusa kuko yagiye afata umwanya akihatira kubaka rwa ‘ruziga rw’ubushobozi’ bwe —uku kuzamuka gufite umuzi ku ruhande rumwe ku bushobozi karemano hanyuma ku rundi ruhande ku bushobozi umuntu yagiye yiyubakamo intambwe ku yindi binyuze mu bikorwa bye.


“Muri macye, isomo nyamukuru ririsobanura. Niba ushaka kuzamura amahirwe yawe yo kugera ku ntsinzi mu buzima cyangwa mu bushabitsi runaka, intambwe ya mbere ni ukwisuzuma ukamenya neza imbibi z’uruziga rw’ubushobozi bwawe, hanyuma ukubakira ibikorwa byawe imbere muri rwa ruziga –atari inyuma y’imbibi z’uruziga. Uko igihe gitambuka, uharanira kwagura rwa ruziga rw’ubushobozi, ariko ntihabeho kwishuka (kwibeshya) ku bushobozi ufite uyu munsi. Kandi ntugatinye kuvuga uti ‘ibi nta bumenyi mbifiteho.”